• r^^V-^' . O
COPYRIGHT, 1890, 1917, BY
GINN AND COMPANY
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
QtC 27 1917
qEfte gtftengiim 3regg
GINN AND COMPANY • PRO-
PRIETORS • BOSTON • U.S.A.
This edition has been carefully edited and abridged
for the use of schools. It includes a sketch of Bunyan's
life and such brief footnotes as the text requires. The
second part of the Pilgrim s Progress has been omitted,
since, to quote the words of Froude, it is but " a feeble
reverberation of the first."
John Bunyan was born in Elstow, Bedfordshire,
England, in 1628. Bunyan's father was a tinker, or
mender of pots and kettles. Bunyan himself, was
brought up to the same trade. He says, " My descent
was of a low and inconsiderable generation, my father's
house being of that rank that is meanest and most de-
spised of all the families of the land."
Bunyan learned reading and writing " according," he
says, " to the rate of other poor men's children." That
little he soon lost " almost utterly."
When he reached the age of sixteen he appears to
have served in one of the armies of the Civil War then
raging in England between King Charles I. and the
forces raised by Parliament ; but it is impossible to say
with certainty whether he fought for or against the
crown. At the close of the war Bunyan went back to
Elstow and resumed his tinker's trade.
He married when about twenty, and he tells us that
he and his wife were " as poor as poor might be, with-
out so much household stuff as a dish or spoon between
In 1655 Bunyan moved to Bedford, a little more than
a mile from Elstow. He had been converted, and now
began to speak in public on matters of religion. Crowds
came to hear the once blaspheming tinker who had
turned preacher. But though the "common people
heard him gladly," yet the country parsons and doctors
vi JOHN BUNYAN
of divinity were exceedingly wroth with this presumpt-
uous tinker who "strove to mend souls as well as
kettles and pans."
On the restoration of Charles II. severe acts were
passed against those who refused to attend the services
of the Church of England. Bunyan, as an itinerant
preacher of doctrines not fully in accord with that
church, was especially obnoxious to those who upheld
the law. As he refused to stop preaching, he was
finally arrested and convicted of having " devilishly
and perniciously abstained from coming to church."
He was sentenced to the county jail, and there, with the
exception of a short period, he remained a prisoner for
twelve years (1660-1672). This jail or the town jail —
for he seems to have been imprisoned in both — was the
"den" of which he speaks in the opening lines of
" Pilgrim's Progress ; " and if it was as filthy and as
miserably kept as most prisons were at that time in
England, then the word " den " exactly describes it.
But in his marvellous dream of " A Pilgrimage from
this World to the Next" (published in 1678), Bunyan
forgot his squalid surroundings. Like Milton, in his
blindness, loneliness, and poverty, he looked within and
" The mind is its own place, and in itself
Can make a heaven of hell."
Bunyan's chief writings besides " The Pilgrim's Prog-
ress " were u The Life and Death of Mr. Badman," and
" The Holy War ; " though he published in all about forty
other books great and small, and after his death, in 1688,
some ten or twelve more were issued bearing his name.
Lord Macaulay says of Bunyan, " Though there
were many clever men during the latter part of the
seventeenth century, there were only two great creative
JOH.V BUNYAN vii
minds. One of those minds produced the 4 Paradise
Lost,' the other, the ' Pilgrim's Progress.' "
But aside from its literary merit the "Pilgrim's
Progress " is interesting for the glimpses it gives of the
history of the times. " Vanity Fair " is said to have
been suggested by the great fair at Sturbridge, near
Cambridge, England, as Bunyan saw it, though of
course only the dark side of it appears in the allegory.
Again, as Macaulay remarks, there can be no reason-
able doubt that the proceedings against Faithful at the
fair are intended to satirize " the shameless partiality
and ferocious insolence " of the judges in the state trials
conducted under Charles II.
" In fact," says the historian, " the imaginary trial of
Faithful before a jury of personified vices was just and
merciful when compared with the real trial of Lady
Alice Lisle before that tribunal where all the vices sat
in the person of Jeffries."
We cannot close this sketch better than by quoting
the last lines of Bunyan's quaint " Apology for his
Book " : —
" Would'st read thyself, and read thou know'st not what,
Oh then come hither,
And lay my book, thy head, and heart together."
D II M.
THE FIRST STAGE
As I walked through the wilderness of this world,
I lighted on a certain place where was a den, 1 and laid
me down in that place to sleep ; and as I slept, I
dreamed a dream. I dreamed, and behold, I saw a man
clothed with rags standing in a certain place, with his
face from his own house, a book in his hand, and a great
burden upon his back. I looked and saw him open the
book, and read therein ; and as he read he wept and
trembled ; and not being able longer to contain, he
brake out with a lamentable cry, saying, " What shall
In this plight, therefore, he went home, and re-
strained himself as long as he could, that his wife and
children should not perceive his distress ; but he could
not be silent long, because that his trouble increased.
Wherefore at length he brake his mind to his wife and
children, and thus he began to talk to them. " Oh, my
dear wife," said he, " and you the children of my heart,
I, your dear friend, am in myself undone by reason
1 Bedford Jail, England, in which the author was a prisoner for con-
science' sake. See page vi.
2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
of a burden that lieth hard upon me ; moreover, I am
certainly informed that this our city will be destroyed;
in which fearful overthrow, both myself, with thee my
wife, and you my sweet babes, shall miserably come to
ruin, except (the which yet I see not) some way of
escape can be found whereby we may be delivered."
At this his relations were sore amazed ; not for that
they believed that what he had said to them was true,
but because they thought that some strange distemper
had got into his head ; therefore, it drawing towards
night, and they hoping that sleep might settle his
brains, with all haste they got him to bed. But the
night was as troublesome to him as the day; where-
fore, instead of sleeping, he spent it in sighs and tears.
So when the morning was come, they would know how
he did. He told them, " Worse and worse ; " he also
set to talking to them again ; but they began to be
hardened. They also thought to drive away his distem-
per by harsh and surly treatment of him; sometimes
they would deride, sometimes they would chide, and
sometimes they would quite neglect him. Wherefore
he began to retire himself to his chamber to pray for
and pity them, and also to condole his own misery; he
would also walk solitarily in the fields, sometimes read-
ing, and sometimes praying ; and thus for some days
he spent his time.
Now I saw, upon a time, when he was walking in
the fields, that he was (as he was wont) reading in his
book, and greatly distressed in his mind; and as he
read, he burst out, as he had done before, crying,
" What shall I do to be saved ? "
I saw also that he looked this way, and that way, as
if he would run ; yet he stood still, because (as I per-
ceived) he could not tell which way to go. I looked
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 3
then, and saw a man named Evangelist 1 coming to him,
and he said, " Wherefore dost thou cry? '
He answered, " Sir, I perceive, by the book in my
hand, that I am condemned to die, and after that to
come to judgment ; and I find that I am not willing to
do the first, nor able to do the second."
Then said Evangelist, " Why not willing to die, since
this life is attended with so many evils ? " The man
answered, " Because I fear that this burden that is upon
my back will sink me lower than the grave. And, sir,
if I be not fit to go to prison, I am not fit to go to
judgment, and from thence to execution; and the
thoughts of these things make me cry."
Then said Evangelist, " If this be thy condition,
why standest thou still ? " He answered, " Because I
know not whither to go." Then he gave him a roll of
parchment, and there was written within, " Fly from
the wrath to come."
The man therefore read it, and, looking upon Evan-
gelist very carefully, said, "Whither must I fly?'"
Then said Evangelist (pointing with his finger over a
very wide field), " Do you see yonder wicket-gate ? " 2
The man said, " No." Then said the other, " Do you
see yonder shining light ? " He said, " 1 think I do."
Then said Evangelist, " Keep that light in your eye,
and go up directly thereto, so shalt thou see the gate ;
at which, when thou knockest, it shall be told thee
what thou shalt do." So I saw in my dream that the
man began to run. Now he had not run far from his
own door when his wife and children, perceiving it, be-
gan to cry after him to return ; but the man put his
fingers in his ears and ran on, crying : " Life ! life ! eter-
1 Evangelist : Bringer of glad tidings ; bearer of the good news of God.
2 Wicket-gate : A little gate or door.
4 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
nal life ! " So he looked not behind him, but fled
towards the middle of the plain.
The neighbors also came out to see him run, and as
he ran, some mocked, others threatened, and some cried
after him to return ; and among those that did so, there
were two *that resolved to fetch him back by force.
The name of the one was Obstinate, and the name of
the other Pliable. Now by this time the man was got
a good distance from them, but, however, they were re-
solved to pursue him, which they did, and in a little
time they overtook him. Then said the man, " Neigh-
bors, wherefore are ye come ? " They said, " To per-
suade you to go back with us." But he said, "That
can by no means be : you dwell," said he, " in the city
of Destruction, the place also where I was born : I see
it to be so ; and dying there, sooner or later you will
sink lower than the grave : be content, good neighbors,
and go along with me."
Obst. What, said Obstinate, and leave our friends
and our comforts behind us !
Chr. Yes, said Christian (for that was his name),
because that all which you forsake is not worthy to be
compared with a little of that I am seeking to enjoy ;
and if you will go along with me, and hold it, you shall
fare as I myself ; for there, where I go, is enough and
to spare. Come away, and prove my words.
Obst. What are the things you seek, since you leave
all the world to find them?
Chr. I seek an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled,
and that fadeth not away ; and it is laid up in heaven,
and safe there, to be bestowed, at the time appointed,
on them that diligently seek it. Read it so, if you will,
in my book.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 5
Obst. Nonsense, said Obstinate, away with your
book : will you go back with us or no ?
Chr. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid
my hand to the plough.
Obst. Come, then, neighbor Pliable, let us turn
again, and go home without him : there is a company
of these crazy-headed coxcombs, that when they take a
fancy by the end, are wiser in their own eyes than seven
men that can render a reason.
Pli. Then said Pliable, Don't revile ; if what good
Christian says is true, the things he looks after are
better than ours : my heart inclines to go with my
Obst. What, more fools still ! Be ruled by me, and
go back ; who knows whither such a brain-sick fellow
will lead you ? Go back, go back, and be wise.
Chr. Nay, but do thou come with thy neighbor
Pliable ; there are such things to be had which I spoke
of, and many more glories besides. If you believe not
me, read here in this book ; and for the truth of what is
expressed therein, behold, all is confirmed by the blood
of Him that made it.
Pli. Well, neighbor Obstinate, said Pliable, I begin
to come to a point ; I intend to go along with this good
man, and to cast in my lot with him ; but, my good
companion, do you know the way to this desired place ?
Chr. I am directed by a man, whose name is Evan-
gelist, to speed me to a little gate that is before us,
where we shall receive instructions about the way.
Pli. Come then, good neighbor, let us be going.
Then they went both together.
Obst. And I will go back to my place, said Obsti-
nate ; I will be no companion of such misled, fantasti-
6 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Now I saw in my dream, that when Obstinate was
gone back, Christian and Pliable went talking over the
plain ; and thus they began their discourse.
Chr. Come, neighbor Pliable, how do you do ? I
am glad you are persuaded to go along with me. Had
even Obstinate himself but felt what I have felt of the
powers and terrors of what is yet unseen, he would not
thus lightly have given us the back.
Pli. Come, neighbor Christian, since there are
none but us two here, tell me now further, what the
things are, and how to be enjoyed, whither we are
Chr. I can better conceive of them with my mind,
than speak of them with my tongue ; but yet, since
you are desirous to know, I will read of them in my
Pli. And do you think that the words of your book
are certainly true ?
Chr. Yes, verily ; for it was made by Him that can-
Pli. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear
of these things : come on, let us mend our pace.
Chr. I cannot go as fast as I would, by reason of
this burden that is on my back.
Now I saw in my dream that just as they had ended
this talk, they drew nigh to a very miry slough that
was in the midst of the plain : and they being heedless,
did both fall suddenly into the bog. The name of the
slough was Despond. Here, therefore, they wallowed
for a time, being grievously bedaubed with dirt ; and
Christian, because of the burden that was on his back,
began to sink in the mire.
Pli. Then said Pliable, Ah, neighbor Christian,
where are you now ?
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS h
Che. Truly, said Christian, I do not know.
Pli. At this Pliable began to be offended, and an-
grily said to his fellow, Is this the happiness you have
told me all this while of? If we have such ill speed at
our first setting out, what may we expect between this
and our journey's end ? May I get out again with my
life, you shall possess the brave country alone for me.
And with that he gave a desperate struggle or two, and
got out of the mire on that side of the slough which
was next to his own house : so away he went, and
Christian saw him no more.
Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough
of Despond alone ; but still he endeavored to struggle
to that side of the slough that was farthest from his
own house, and next to the wicket-gate ; the which he
did, but could not get out because of the burden that
was upon his back : but I beheld in my dream, that a
man came to him, whose name was Help, and asked
him what he did there.
Chk. Sir, said Christian, I was bid to go this way
by a man called Evangelist, who directed me also to
yonder gate, that I might escape the wrath to come.
And as I was going thither, I fell in here.
Help. But why did not you look for the steps ?
Cjhr. Fear followed me so hard that I fled the next
way, and fell in.
Help. Then said he, Give me thine hand : so he gave
him his hand, and he drew him out, and he set him
upon sound ground, and bid him go on his way.
Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and
said, " Sir, wherefore, since over tiiis place is the way
from the city of Destruction to yonder gate, is it, that
this plat is not mended, that poor travellers might go
thither with more security ? " And he said unto me,
8 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
" This miry slough is such a place as cannot be mended ;
it is the descent whither the scum and filth that at-
tends conviction for sin doth continually run, and
therefore it is called the Slough of Despond ; for still,
as the sinner is awakened about his lost condition,
there arise in his soul many fears and doubts, and dis-
couraging apprehensions, which all of them get to-
gether, and settle in this place : and this is the reason
of the badness of this ground.
" It is not the pleasure of the King that this place
should remain so bad. His laborers also have, by the
direction of his Majesty's surveyors, been for above these
sixteen hundred years employed about this patch of
ground, if perhaps it might have been mended — yea,
and to my knowledge," said he, " there have been
swallowed up at least twenty thousand cartloads, yea,
millions of wholesome instructions, that have at all
seasons been brought from all places of the King's
dominions (and they that can tell, say, they are the best
materials to make good ground of the place), if so be
it might have been mended ; but it is the Slough of
Despond still, and so will be when they have done what
" True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver,
certain good and substantial steps, placed even through
the very midst of this slough ; but at such time as this
place doth much spew out its filth, as it doth against
change of weather, these steps are hardly seen ; or if
they be, men, through the dizziness of their heads, step
beside, and then they are bemired indeed, notwithstand-
ing the steps be there : but the ground is good when
they are once got in at the gate."
Now I saw in my dream, that by this time Pliable
was got home to his house. So his neighbors came to
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 9
visit him ; and some of them called him wise man for
coming back, and some called him fool for hazarding
himself with Christian : others again did mock at his
cowardliness, saying, " Surely, since you began to ven-
ture, I would not have been so base as to have given
out for a few difficulties." So Pliable sat sneaking
among them. But at last he got more confidence, and
then they all turned their tales, and began to deride
poor Christian behind his back. And thus much con-
Now as Christian was walking solitarily by himself,
he espied one afar off come crossing over the field to
meet him ; and their hap was to meet just as they were
crossing the way of each other. The gentleman's name
that met him was Mr. Worldly Wiseman : he dwelt in
the town of Carnal Policy, a very great town, and also
hard by from whence Christian came. This man then,
meeting with Christian, and having some slight knowl-
edge of him (for Christian's setting forth from the city
of Destruction was much noised abroad, not only in the
town where he dwelt, but also it began to be the town-
talk in some other places) — Mr. Worldly Wiseman,
therefore, having some guess of him, by beholding his
laborious going, by observing his sighs and groans, and
the like, began thus to enter into some talk with
World. How now, good fellow, whither away after
this burdened manner ?
Chr. A burdened manner indeed, as ever I think
poor creature had ! And whereas you ask me, Whither
away ? I tell you, sir, I am going to yonder wicket-
gate before me ; for there, as I am informed, I shall be
put into a way to be rid of my heavy burden.
World. Hast thou a wife and children ?
lO THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Chr. Yes ; but I am so laden with this burden, that
I cannot take that pleasure in them as formerly : me-
thinks I am as if I had none.
World. Wilt thou hearken to me, if I give thee
Chr. If it be good, I will ; for I stand in need of
World. I would advise thee, then, that thou with
all speed get thyself rid of thy burden ; for thou wilt
never be settled in thy mind till then : nor canst thou
enjoy the benefits of the blessings which God hath be-
stowed upon thee till then.
Chr. That, is that which I seek for, even to be rid of
this heavy burden : but get it off myself I cannot, nor is
there any man in our country that can take it off my
shoulders ; therefore I am going this way, as I told you,
that I may be rid of my burden.
World. Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy
Chr. A man that appeared to me to be a very great
and honorable person : his name, as I remember, is
World. I beshrew x him for his counsel ! There is
not a more dangerous and troublesome way in the world
than is that into which he hath directed thee ; and that
thou shalt find, if thou wilt be ruled by his counsel.
Thou has met with something, as I perceive, already ;
for T see the dirt of the Slough of Despond is upon
thee : but that slough is the beginning of the sorrows
that do attend those that go on in that way. Hear me :
I am older than thou : thou art like to meet with, in
the way which thou goest, wearisomeness, painfulness,
hunger, perils, nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, dark-
Beshrew : To wish a curse to.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS n
ness, and, in a word, death, and what not. These things
are certainly true, having been confirmed by many testi-
monies. And should a man so carelessly cast away
himself, by giving heed to a stranger?
Chr. Why, sir, this burden on my back is more ter-
rible to me than all these things which you have men-
tioned : nay, methinks I care not what I meet with in
the way, if so be I can also meet with deliverance from
World. How earnest thou by thy burden at first ?
Chr. By reading this book in my hand.
World. I thought so ; and it has happened unto
thee as to other weak men, who, meddling with things
too high for them, do suddenly fall into thy distractions ;
which distractions do not only unman men, as thine I
perceive have done thee, but they run them upon des-
perate ventures, to obtain they know not what.
Chr. I know what I would obtain ; it is ease from
my heavy burden.
World. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way,
seeing so many dangers attend it? especially since
(hadst thou but patience to hear me) I could direct
thee to the obtaining of what thou desirest, without the
dangers that thou in this way wilt run thyself into.
Yea, and the remedy is at hand. Besides, I will add,
that instead of those dangers, thou shalt meet with
much safety, friendship, and content.
Chr. I pray open this secret to me.
World. Why, in yonder village (the village is named
Morality) there dwells a gentleman whose name is Le-
gality, 1 a very judicious man, and a man of a very good
name, that has skill to help men off with such burdens
as thine is from their shoulders ; yea, to my knowledge,
1 Legality : here, Good Works.
12 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
he hath done a great deal of good this way ; aye, and
besides, he hath skill to cure those that are somewhat
crazed in their wits with their burdens. To him, as I
said, thou mayest go and be helped presently. His
house is not quite a mile from this place ; and if he
should not be at home himself, he hath a nice young
man for his son, whose name is Civility, that can do it
(to speak on) as well as the old gentleman himself :
there, I say, thou mayest be eased of thy burden ; and
if thou art not minded to go back to thy former habi-
tation (as indeed I would not wish thee), thou mayest
send for thy wife and children to this village, where
there are houses now standing empty, one of which
thou mayest have at a reasonable rate : provision is
there also cheap and good ; and that which will make
thy life the more happy is, to be sure there thou shalt
live by honest neighbors, in credit and good fashion.
Now was Christian somewhat at a stand ; but pres-
ently he concluded, If this be true which this gentle-
man hath said, my wisest course is to take his advice ;
and with that he thus further spake.
Chr. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's
World. Do you see yonder high hill ?
Chr. Yes, very well.
World. By that hill you must go, and the first
house you come at is his.
So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr.
Legality's house for help : but, behold, when he was got
now hard by the hill, it seemed so high, and also that
side of it that was next the wayside did hang so much
over, that Christian was afraid to venture further, lest
the hill should fall on his head ; wherefore there he
stood still, and knew not what to do. Also his bur-
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS ! 3
den now seemed heavier to him than while he was in
his way. There came also flashes of fire out of the
hill, that made Christian afraid that he should be burnt ;
here therefore he did sweat and quake for fear. And
now he began to be sorry that he had taken Mr. Worldly
Wiseman's counsel; and with that he saw Evangelist
coming to meet him, at the sight also of whom he
began to blush with shame. So Evangelist drew nearer
and nearer ; and coming up to him, he looked upon
him, with a severe and dreadful countenance, and thus
be^an to reason with Christian.
Evan. What doest thou here, Christian ? said he :
at which words Christian knew not what to answer ;
wherefore at present he stood speechless before him.
Then said Evangelist further, Art not thou the man
that I found crying without the walls of the city of
Chr. Yes, dear sir, I am the man.
Evan. Did not I direct thee the way to the little
Chr. Yes, clear sir, said Christian.
Evan. How is it, then, thou art so quickly turned
aside ? For thou art now out of thy way.
Chr. I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got
over the Slough of Despond, who persuaded me that
I might, in the village before me, find a man that could
take off my burden.
Evan. What was he ?
Chr. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much
to me, and got me at last to yield : so I came hither :
and when I beheld this hill, and how it hangs over the
way, I suddenly made a stand, lest it should fall on my
Evan. What said that gentleman to you ?
l^ THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Chr. Why, he asked me whither I was going ; and
I told him.
Evan. And what said he then ?
Chr. He asked me if I had a family ; and I told
him. But, said I, I am so laden with the burden that
is on my back, that I cannot take pleasure in them as
Evan. And what said he then ?
Chr. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden ;
and I told him it was ease that I sought. And, said I,
I am therefore going to yonder gate, to receive further
direction how I may get to the place of deliverance.
So he said that he would show me a better way, and
short, not so attended with difficulties as the way, sir,
that you set me in ; which way, said he, will direct you
to a gentleman's house that hath skill to take off these
burdens : so I believed him, and turned out of that way
into this, if haply I might be soon eased of my bur-
den. But when I came to this place, and beheld things
as they are, I stopped, for fear (as I said) of danger :
but I now know not what to do.
Evan. Then said Evangelist, Stand still a little,
that I show thee the words of God. So he stood trem-
bling. Then said Evangelist, " See that ye refuse not
Him that speaketh ; for if they escaped not who refused
him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape,
if we turn away from Him that speaketh from heaven."
Then Christian fell down at his feet as dead, crying,
Woe is me, for I am undone ! At the sight of which
Evangelist caught him by the right hand, saying, " All
manner of sin and blasphemies shall be forgiven unto
men." " Be not faithless, but believing." Then did
Christian again a little revive, and stood up trembling,
as at first, before Evangelist.
MR. WORLDLY WISEMAN
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS Y ?
Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, Give more ear-
nest heed to the things that I shall tell thee. I will
now show thee who it was that deluded thee, and who
it was also to whom he sent thee. The man that met
thee is one Worldly Wiseman, and rightly is he so
called ; partly because he knoweth only the doctrine of
this world (therefore he always goes to the town of
Morality to church) ; and because he is of this worldly
temper, therefore he seeketh to pervert my ways,
though right. Now there are three things thou must
1. His turning thee out of the way.
2. His laboring to render the cross odious to thee.
3. And his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth
This Legality, therefore, is not able to set thee free
from thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his
burden by him ; no, nor ever is like to be : ye can not
be justified by the works of the law ; for by the deeds
of the law no man living can be rid of his burden.
Therefore Mr. Worldly Wiseman is au alien, 1 and Mr.
Legality is a cheat ; and for his son Civility, notwith-
standing his simpering looks, he is but a hypocrite, and
can not help thee. Believe me, there is nothing in all
this noise that thou hast heard of these foolish men,
but a design to beguile thee of thy salvation, by turn-
ing thee from the way in which I set thee. After this,
Evangelist called aloud to the heavens for confirmation
of what he had said ; and with that there came words
and fire out of the mountain under which poor Chris-
tian stood, which made the hair of his flesh stand up.
The words were pronounced ; " As many as are of the
works of the law, are under the curse ; for it is written,
1 Alien : Foreigner or heathen.
l6 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things
which are written in the book of the law to do them."
Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and be-
gan to cry out lamentably, even cursing the time in
which he met with Mr. Worldly Wiseman ; still calling
himself a thousand fools for hearkening to his counsel.
He was also greatly ashamed to think that this gentle-
man's arguments, flowing only from the flesh, should
have the prevalency with him so far as to cause him to
forsake the right way. This done, he applied himself
again to Evangelist in words and sense as follows.
Chr. Sir, what think you? Is there any hope?
May I now go back, and go up to the wicket-gate? Shall
I not be abandoned for this, and sent back from thence
ashamed ? I am sorry I have hearkened to this man's
counsel; but may my sin be forgiven?
Evan. Then said Evangelist to him, Thy sin is very
great, for by it thou hast committed two evils : thou
hast forsaken the way that is good, to tread in forbid-
den paths. Yet will the man at the gate receive thee,
for he has good-will for men ; only, said he, take heed
that thou turn not aside again, lest thou "perish from
the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little."
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
THE SECOND STAGE
Then did Christian address himself to go back ; and
Evangelist, after he had kissed him, gave him one
smile and bid him God speed ; so he went on with
haste, neither spake he to any man by the way ; nor if
any man asked him, would he vouchsafe them an
answer. He went like one that was all the while
treading on forbidden ground, and could by no means
think himself safe, till again he was got into the way
which he had left to follow Mr. Worldly Wiseman's
counsel. So, in process of time, Christian got up to
the gate. Now, over the gate there was written,
" Knock, and it shall be opened unto you."
He knocked, therefore, more than once or twice. At
last there came a grave person to the gate, named
Goodwill, who asked who was there, and whence he
came, and what he would have.
Che,. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from
the city of Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion,
that I may be delivered from the wrath to come. I
would therefore, sir, since I am informed that by this
gate is the way thither, know if you are willing to let
Good. I am willing with all my heart, said he ; and
with that he opened the gate.
So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave
him a pull. Then said Christian, What means that ?
The other told him, A little distance from this gate
there is erected a strong castle, of which Beelzebub is
the captain ; from whence both he and they that are
1 8 THE PILGRIM' S PROGRESS
with him shoot arrows at those that come up to this
gate, if haply they may die before they can enter in.
Then said Christian, I rejoice and tremble. So when
he was got in, the man at the gate asked him who
directed him thither.
Chr. Evangelist bid me come hither and knock, as
I did: and he said, that you, sir, would tell me what I
Good. An open door is set before thee, and no man
can shut it.
Chr. Now I begin to reap the benefit of my hazards.
Good. But how is it that you came alone?
Chr. Because none of my neighbors saw their dan-
ger as I saw mine.
Good. Did any of them know of your coming?
Chr. Yes, my wife and children saw me at the
first, and called after me to turn again : also some of
my neighbors stood crying and calling after me to re-
turn ; but I put my fingers in my ears, and so came on
Good. But did none of them follow you, to per-
suade you to go back ?
Chr. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable ; but when
they saw that they could not prevail, Obstinate went
railing back, but Pliable came with me a little way.
Good. But why did he not come through ?
Chr. We indeed came both together until we came
to the Slough of Despond, into the which we also sud-
denly fell. And then was my neighbor Pliable dis-
couraged, and would not venture farther. Wherefore,
getting out again on the side next to his own house, he
told me 1 should possess the brave country alone for
him ; so he went his way, and I came mine ; he after
Obstinate, and I to this gate.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 19
Good. Then said Goodwill, Alas, poor man ; is the
celestial glory of so little esteem with him, that he
counteth it not worth running the hazard of a few diffi-
culties to obtain it ?
Chr. Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of
Pliable ; and if I should also say all the truth of my-
self, it will appear there is no betterment betwixt him
and myself. It is true, he went back to his own house,
but I also turned aside to go into the way of death, be-
ing persuaded thereto by the worldly argument of one
Mr. Worldly Wiseman.
Good. Oh, did he light upon you ? What, he would
have had you seek for ease at the hands of Mr. Legal-
ity ! They are both of them a very cheat. But did
you take his counsel ?
Chr. Yes, as far as I durst. I went to find out Mr.
Legality, until I thought that the mountain that stands
by his house would' have fallen upon my head ; where-
fore there was I forced to stop.
Good. That mountain has been the death of many,
and will be the death of many more : it is well you es-
caped being clashed in pieces by it.
Chr. Why truly I do not know what had become
of me there, had not Evangelist happily met me again
as I was musing in the midst of my dumps ; but it was
God's mercy that he came to me again, for else I had
never come hither. But now I am come, such a one as
I am, more fit indeed for death by that mountain, than
thus to stand talking with my Lord. But oh, what a
favor is this to me ; that yet I am admitted entrance
Good. We make no objections against any, notwith-
standing all that they have done before they come
hither; they in nowise are cast out. And therefore,
20 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
good Christian, come a little way with me, and I will
teach thee about the way thou must go. Look before
thee ; dost thou see this narrow way ? That is the way
thou must go. It was cast up by the patriarchs,
prophets, Christ, and his apostles, and it is as straight
as a rule can make it ; this is the way thou must go.
Che. But, said Christian, are there no turnings nor
windings, by which a stranger may lose his way ?
Good. Yes, there are many ways lead out from this,
and they are crooked and wide : but thus thou mayest
distinguish the right from the wrong, the right only
being straight and narrow.
Then I saw in my dream, that Christian asked him
further, if he could not help him off with his burden
that was upon his back. For as yet he had not got rid
thereof ; nor could he by any means get it off without
He told him, " As to thy burden, be content to bear
it until thou comest to the place of deliverance ; for
there it will fall from thy back of itself."
Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to
address himself to his journey. So the other told him,
that by that he was gone some distance from the gate,
he would come to the house of the Interpreter, 1 at
whose door he should knock, and he would show him
excellent things. Then Christian took his leave of his
friend, and he again bid him God speed.
Then he went on till he came at the house of the
Interpreter, where he knocked over and over. At last
one came to the door, and asked who was there.
Chr. Sir, here is a traveller, who was bid by an ac-
quaintance of the good man of this house to call here
1 Interpreter : The Holy Spirit.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 21
for my profit ; I would therefore speak with the master
of the house.
So he called for the master of the house, who, after
a little time, came to Christian, and asked him what
he would have.
Chr. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come
from the city of Destruction, and am going to the
Mount Zion ; and I was told by the man that stands at
the gate at the head of this way, that if I called here
you would show me excellent things, such as would be
helpful to me on my journey.
Inter. Then said Interpreter, Come in ; I will show
thee that which will be profitable to thee. So he com-
manded his man to light the candle, and bid Christian
follow him. So he had him into a private room, and
bid his man open a door ; the which when he had done,
Christian saw the picture of a very grave person hang-
ing up against the wall ; and this was the fashion of it :
it had eyes lifted up to heaven, the best of books in its
hand, the law of truth was written upon its lips, the
world was behind its back ; it stood as if it pleaded
with men, and a crown of gold did hang over its head.
Now, said the Interpreter, I have showed thee this
picture first, because the man whose picture this is, is
the only man whom the Lord of the place whither thou
art going hath authorized to be thy guide in all diffi-
cult places thou mayest meet with in the way : where-
fore take good heed to what I have showed thee, and
bear well in thy mind what thou hast seen, lest in thy
journey thou meet with some that pretend to lead thee
right, but their way goes down to death.
Then he took him by the hand, and led him into a
very large parlor that was full of dust, because never
swept ; the which after he reviewed it a little while,
22 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
the Interpreter called for a man to sweep. Now, when
he began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly to
fly about, that Christian had almost therewith been
choked. Then said the Interpreter to a damsel that
stood by, " Bring hither water, and sprinkle the room ; "
the which when she had done, it was swept and
cleansed with pleasure.
Chr. Then said Christian, What means this ?
Inter. The Interpreter answered, This parlor is
the heart of a man that was never sanctified by the
sweet grace of the Gospel. The dust is his original
sin, and inward corruptions, that have defiled the whole
man. He that began to sweep at first, is the Law ; but
she that brought water, and did sprinkle it, is the Gos-
pel. Now whereas thou sawest, that so soon as the
first began to sweep, the dust did so fly about that the
room by him could not be cleansed, but that thou wast
almost choked therewith ; this is to show thee, that the
Law, instead of cleansing the heart (by its working)
from sin, doth revive, put strength into and increase it
in the soul, even as it doth discover and forbid it ; for
it doth not give power to subdue. Again, as thou saw-
est the damsel sprinkle the room with water, upon
which it was cleansed with pleasure, this is to show
thee, that when the Gospel comes, in the sweet and
precious influences thereof, to the heart, then, I say,
even as thou sawest the damsel lay the dust by sprink-
ling the floor with water, so is sin vanquished and sub-
dued, and the soul made clean through the faith of it,
and consequently fit for the King of glory to inhabit.
I saw moreover in my dream that the Interpreter
took him by the hand, and led him into a little room,
where sat two little children, each one in his chair.
The name of the eldest was Passion, and the name of
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
the other Patience. Passion seemed to be much dis-
contented, but Patience was very quiet. Then Christian
asked, " What is the reason of the discontent of
Passion ? " The Interpreter answered, " The governor
of them would have him stay for his best things till the
beginning of the next year, but he will have all now ;
but Patience is willing to wait.
Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought
him a bag of treasure, and poured it down at his feet :
the which he took up and rejoiced therein, and withal
laughed Patience to scorn. But I beheld but a while,
and he had lavished all away, and had nothing left him
Chr. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, ex-
pound this matter more fully to me.
Inter. So he said, These two lads are figures;
Passion of the men of this world, and Patience of the
men of that which is to come ; for, as here thou seest,
Passion will have all now, this year, that is to say, in
this world ; so are the men of this world : they must
have all their good things now ; they cannot stay till
the next year, that is, until the next world, for their
portion of good. That proverb, " A bird in the hand is
worth two in the bush," is of more authority with them
than are all the divine testimonies of the good of the
world to come. But as thou sawest that he had quickly
lavished all away, and had presently left him nothing
but rags, so will it be with all such men at the end of
Chr. Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience
has the best wisdom, and that upon many accounts.
1. Because he stays for the best things. 2. And also
because he will have the glory of his, when the other
has nothing but rags.
24 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Inter. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory
of the next world will never wear out ; but these are
suddenly gone. Therefore Passion had not so much
reason to laugh at Patience because he had his good
things first as Patience will have to laugh at Passion
because he had his best things last, for first must give
place to last, because last must have his time to come ;
but last gives place to nothing, for there is not another
to succeed. He, therefore, that hath his portion first,
must needs have a time to spend it ; but he that hath
his portion last, must have it lastingly : therefore it is
said of Dives, " In thy lifetime thou receivedst thy
good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things : but now
he is comforted and thou art tormented."
Chr. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things
that are now ; but to wait for things to come.
Inter. You say truth : for the things that are
seen are temporal, but the things that are not seen are
eternal. But though this be so, yet since things pres-
ent and our bodily appetite are such near neighbors one
to another ; and again, because things to come and
worldly sense are such strangers one to another ; there-
fore it is, that the first of these so suddenly fall into
agreement, and that distance is so continued between
Then I saw in my dream that the Interpreter took
Christian by the hand and led him into a j)lace where
was a fire burning against a Avail, and one standing by
it, always casting much water upon it to quench it ; yet
did the fire burn higher and hotter.
Then said Christian, What means this?
The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of
grace that is wrought in the heart; he that casts water
upon it, to extinguish and put it out, is the Evil One ;
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 25
but in that thou seest the fire, notwithstanding, burn
higher and hotter, thou shall also see the reason of that.
So he had him about to the back side of the wall, where
he saw a man with a vessel of oil in his hand, of the
which he did also continually cast (but secretly) into
Then said Christian, What means this ?
The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, who con-
tinually, with the oil of his grace, maintains the work
already begun in the heart ; by the means of which,
notwithstanding what the Evil One can dcj, the souls
of his people prove gracious still. And in that thou
sawest that the man stood behind the wall to maintain
the fire ; this is to teach thee, that it is hard for the
tempted to see how this work of grace is maintained in
I saw also, that the Interpreter took him again by the
hand, and led him into a pleasant place, where was
built a stately palace, beautiful to behold ; at the sight
of which Christian was greatly delighted. He saw also
upon the top thereof certain persons walking, who were
clothed all in gold.
Then said Christian, May we go in thither ?
Then the Interpreter took him, and Jed him up
towards the door of the palace ; and behold, at the
door stood a great company of men, as desirous to go
in, but durst not. There also sat a man at a little dis-
tance from the door, at a table-side, with a book and
his inkstand before him, to take the names of them that
should enter therein ; he saw also that in the doorway
stood many men in armor to keep it, being resolved to
do to the men that would enter, what hurt and mischief
they could. Now was Christian somewhat in amaze.
At last when every man started back for fear of the
26 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
armed men, Christian saw a man of a very stout coun
tenance come up to the man that sat there to write,
saying, " Set down my name, sir ; " the which, when he
had done, he saw the man draw his sword, and put a
helmet on his head, and rush towards the door upon the
armed men, who laid upon him with deadly force ; but
the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting and hack-
ing most fiercely. So after he had received and given
many wounds to those that attempted to keep him out,
he cut his way through them all, and pressed forward
into the palace ; at which there was a pleasant voice
heard from those that were within, even of those that
walked upon the top of the palace, saying,
" Come, come in,
Eternal glory thou shalt win."
So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as
they. Then Christian smiled, and said, I think veril}'
I know the meaning of this.
Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay,
said the Interpreter, till I have showed thee a little
more, and after that thou shalt go on thy way. So he
took him by the hand again, and led him into a very
dark room, where there sat a man in an iron cage.
Now the man, to look on, seemed very sad ; he sat
with his eyes looking down to the ground, his hands
folded together, and he sighed as if he would break his
heart. Then said Christian, What means this ? At
which the Interpreter bid him talk with the man.
Then said Christian to the man, What art thou?
The man answered, I am what I was not once.
Che,. What wast thou once ?
Man. The man said, I was once a fair and flourish-
ing professor of religion, both in mine own eyes, and also
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 27
in the eyes of others : I once was, as I thought, fair for
the celestial city, and had then even joy at the thoughts
that I should get thither.
Chr. Well, but what art thou now ?
Man. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up
in it, as in this iron cage. I cannot get out ; oh, now I
Chr. But how earnest thou into this condition ?
Man. I left off to watch and be sober ; I gave way
to all my desires ; I sinned against the light of the
world, and the goodness of God; I have grieved the
Spirit, and he is gone ; I tempted the Evil One, and he
is come to me ; I have provoked God to anger, and he
has left me : I have so hardened my heart, that I cannot
Inter. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let
this man's misery be remembered by thee, and be an
everlasting caution to thee.
Chr. Well, said Christian, this is fearful ! God help
me to watch and to be sober, and to pray that I may
shun the cause of this man's misery. Sir, is it not time
for me to go on my way now?
Inter. Tarry till I show thee one thing more, and
then thou shalt go on thy way.
So he took Christian by the hand again and led him
into a chamber where there was one rising out of bed ;
and as he put on his raiment, he shook and trembled.
Then said Christian, Why doth this man thus tremble ?
The Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian the rea-
son of his so doing.
So he began, and said, " This night, as I was in my
sleep, I dreamed, and behold the heavens grew exceed-
ing black ; also it thundered and lightened in most
fearful wise, that it put me into an agony. So I looked
28 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
up in my dream, and saw the clouds move at an unusual
rate ; upon which I heard a great sound of a trumpet,
and saw also a man sitting upon a cloud, attended with
the thousands of heaven : they were all in flaming
fire ; also the heavens were in a burning flame. I heard
then a voice, saying, ' Arise, ye dead, and come to judg-
ment.' And with that the rocks rent, the graves
opened, and the dead that were therein came forth :
some of them were exceeding glad, and looked upward ;
and some sought to hide themselves under the moun-
Che,. But what was it that made you so afraid of
this sight ?
Man. Why, I thought that the day of judgment was
come, and that I was not ready for it : but this fright-
ened me most, that the angels gathered up several, and
left me behind. My conscience, too, afflicted me ; and,
as I thought, the Judge had always his eye upon me,
showing indignation in his countenance.
Then said the Interpreter to Christian, " Hast thou
considered all these things ? "
Chr. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear.
Inter. Well, keep all things so in thy mind, that
they may be as a goad in thy sides, to prick thee for-
ward in the way thou must go. Then Christian began
to gird up his loins, and to address himself to his jour-
ney. Then said the Interpreter, " The Comforter be
always with thee, good Christian, to guide thee in the
way that leads to the city." So Christian went on his
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 2 g
THE THIRD STAGE
Now I saw in my dream, that the highway up which
Christian was to go, was fenced on either side with a
wall, and that wall was called Salvation. Up this way,
therefore, did burdened Christian run, but not without
great difficulty, because of the load on his back.
He ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascend-
ing ; and upon that place stood a cross, and a little
below, in the bottom, a sepulchre. So I saw in my
dream, that just as Christian came up with the cross,
his burden loosed from off his shoulders, and fell from
off his back, and began to tumble, and so continued to
do till it came to the mouth of the sepulchre, where it
fell in, and I saw it no more.
Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said
with a merry heart, " He hath given me rest by his
sorrow, and life by his death." Then he stood still a
while, to look and wonder ; for it was very surprising
to him that the sight of the cross should thus ease him
of his burden. He looked, therefore, and looked again,
even till the springs that were in his head sent the
waters down his cheeks. Now as he stood looking and
weeping, behold, three Shining Ones came to him, and
saluted him with, " Peace be to thee." So the first
said to him, " Thy sins be forgiven thee ; " the second
stripped him of his rags, and clothed him with change
of raiment ; the third also set a mark on his forehead,
and gave him a roll 1 with a seal upon it, which he bid
1 Roll : See page 32.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
him look on as he ran, and that he should give it in
at the celestial gate : so they went their way. Then
Christian gave three leaps for joy, and went on singing.
I saw then in my dream, that he went on thus, even
until he came at the bottom, where he saw, a little out
of the way, three men fast asleep, with fetters upon
their heels. The name of the one was Simple, of an-
other Sloth, and of the third, Presumption.
Christian then seeing them lie in this case, went to
them, if peradventure he might awake them, and cried,
You are like them that sleep on the top of a mast, for
the Dead Sea is under you, a gulf that hath no bottom :
awake, therefore, and come away ; be willing also, and
I will help you off with your irons. He also told them,
If he that goeth about like a roaring lion comes by,
you will certainly become a prey to his teeth. With
that they looked upon him, and began to reply in this
sort : Simple said, I see no danger ; Sloth said, Yet a
little more sleep ; and Presumption said, Every tub
must stand upon its own bottom. And so they lay
down to sleep again, and Christian went on his way.
Yet he was troubled to think that men in that dan-
ger should so little esteem the kindness of him that so
freely offered to help them, both by awakening of them,
counselling of them, and proffering to help them off
with their irons. And as he was troubled thereabout,
he espied two men coming tumbling over the wall, on
the left hand of the narrow way ; and they made up
apace to him. The name of the one was Formalist, and
the name of the other Hypocrisy. So, as I said, they
drew up unto him, who thus entered with them into
Chr. Gentlemen, whence came you, and whither
do you go?
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS *!
Form, and Hyp. We were born in the land of Vain-
glory, and are going, for praise, to Mount Zion.
Chr. Why came you not in at the gate which stand-
eth at the beginning of the way ? Know ye not that
it is written, that " he that cometh not in by the door,
but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and
a robber " ?
Form, and Hyp. They said, that to go to the gate
for entrance was by all their countrymen counted too
far about ; and that therefore their usual way was to
make a short cut of it, and to climb over the wall, as
they had done.
Chr. But will it not be counted a trespass against
the Lord of the city whither we are bound, thus to
violate his revealed will?
Form, and Hyp. They told him, that as for that,
he needed not to trouble his head thereabout ; for what
they did they had custom for, and could produce, if
need were, testimony that would Avitness it for more
than a. thousand j^ears.
Chr. But, said Christian, will you stand a trial at
Form, and Hyp. They told him, that custom, it
being of so long standing as above a thousand years,
would doubtless now be admitted as a thing lawful by an
impartial judge: and besides, said they, if we get into
the way, what matter is it which way we get in ? If
we are in, we are in : thou art but in the way, who, as
we perceive, came in at the gate ; and we also are in
the way, that came tumbling over the wall : wherein
now is thy condition better than ours ?
Chr. I walk by the rule of my Master : you walk
by the rude working of your fancies. You are counted
thieves already by the Lord of the way: therefore I
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
think you will not be found true men at the end of the
way. You come in by yourselves without his direction,
and shall go out by yourselves without his mercy.
To this they made him but little answer ; only they
bid him look to himself. Then I saw that they went
on, every man in his way, without much conference one
with another, save that these two men told Christian,
that as to laws and ordinances, they doubted not but
that they should as conscientiously do them as he.
Therefore, said they, we see not wherein thou differest
from us, but by the coat that is on thy back, which w r as,
as we think, given thee by some of thy neighbors.
Chr. By laws and ordinances you will not be
saved, since you came not in by the door. And as
for this coat that is on my back, it was given me by the
Lord of the place whither I go. And I take it as a
token of kindness to me; for I had nothing but rags
before. And besides, thus I comfort myself as I go.
Surely, think I, when I come to the gate of the city,
the Lord thereof will know me for good, since I have
his coat on my back ; a coat that he gave me freely
in the day that he stripped me of my rags. I have,
moreover, a mark in my forehead, of which perhaps
you have taken no notice, which one of my Lord's most
intimate associates fixed there in the day that my
burden fell off my shoulders. I will tell you, more-
over, that I had then given me a roll sealed, to com-
fort me by reading as I go on the way ; I was also bid
to give it in at the celestial gate, in token of my cer-
tain going in after it : all which things I think you want,
and want them because you came not in at the gate.
To these things they gave him no answer ; only they
looked upon each other, and laughed. Then I saw
that they all went on, save that Christian kept before,
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 33
who had no more talk but with himself, and that some-
times sighingly, and sometimes comfortably : also he
would be often reading in the roll that one of the Shin-
ing Ones gave him, by which he was refreshed.
I beheld then, that they all went on till they came
to the foot of the hill Difficulty, at the bottom of which
there was a spring. There were also in the same place
two other ways besides that which came straight from
the gate : one turned to the left hand, and the other to
the right, at the bottom of the hill ; but the narrow
way lay right up the hill, and the name of the going
up the side of the hill is called Difficulty. Christian
now went to the spring, and drank thereof to refresh
himself, and then began to go up the hill.
The other two also came to the foot of the hill. But
when they saw that the hill was steep and high, and
that there were two other ways to go ; and supposing
also that these two ways might meet again with that
up which Christian went, on the other side of the hill ;
therefore they were resolved to go in those ways. Now
the name of one of those ways was Danger, and the
name of the other Destruction. So the one took the
way which is called Danger, which led him into a great
wood; and the other took directly up the way to
Destruction, which led him into a wide field, full of
dark mountains, where he stumbled and fell, and rose
I looked then after Christian, to see him go up the
hill, where I perceived he fell from running to going,
and from going to clambering upon his hands and his
knees, because of the steepness of the place. Now
about midway to the top, of the hill was a pleasant
arbor, made by the Lord of the hill for the refresh-
ment of weary travellers. Thither, therefore, Christian
3 4 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
got, where also he sat down to rest him : then he pulled
his roll out of his bosom, and read therein to his com-
fort ; he also now began afresh to take a review of the
coat or garment that was given to him as he stood by
the cross. Thus pleasing himself awhile, he at last fell
into a slumber, and thence into a fast sleep, which de-
tained him in that place until it was almost night ; and
in his sleep his roll fell out of his hand. Now, as he
was sleeping, there came one unto him, and awaked
him, saying, " Go to the ant, thou sluggard ; consider
her ways, and be wise." And with that, Christian
suddenly started up, and sped him on his way, and
went apace till he came to the top of the hill.
Now when he was got up to the top of the hill,
there came two men running hard ; the name of the
one was Timorous, and of the other Mistrust : to whom
Christian said, Sirs, what's the matter? you run the
wrong way. Timorous answered, that they were going to
the city of Zion, and had got up that difficult place : but,
said he, the farther we go, the more danger we meet
with ; wherefore we turned, and are going back again.
Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couple of
lions in the way, whether sleeping or waking we knoAV
not ; and we could not think, if we came within reach,
but they would presently pull us in pieces.
Che. Then said Christian, You make me afraid ;
but whither shall I fly to be safe ? If I go back to my
own country, I shall certainly perish there; if I can get
to the celestial city, I am sure to be in safety there : I
must venture. To go back is nothing but death : to go
forward is fear of death and life everlasting bevoncl it :
I will yet go forward. So Mistrust and Timorous ran
down the hill, and Christian went on his way. But
thinking again of what he had heard from the men, he
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 35
felt in his bosom for his roll, that he might read there-
in and be comforted ; but he felt, and found it not.
Then was Christian in great distress, and knew not
what to do ; for he wanted that which used to relieve
him, and that which should have been his pass into the
celestial city. Here, therefore, he began to be much
perplexed, and knew not what to do. At last he be-
thought himself that he had slept in the arbor that is
on the side of the hill ; and falling down upon his
knees, he asked God's forgiveness for that foolish act,
and then went back to look for his roll. But all the
way he went back, who can sufficiently set forth the
sorrow of Christian's heart ? Sometimes he sighed,
sometimes he wept, and oftentimes he chid himself for
being so foolish as to fall asleep in that place, which was
erected only for a little refreshment from his weari-
ness. Thus, therefore, he went back, carefully looking
on this side and on that, all the way as he went, if
happily he might find his roll, that had been his com-
fort so many times on his journey. He went thus till
he came again within sight of the arbor, where he sat
and slept ; but that sight renewed his sorrow the more,
by bringing again, even afresh, his evil of sleeping unto
his mind. Thus, therefore, he now went on, bewailing
his sinful sleep, saying, Oh, wretched man that I am,
that I should sleep in the daytime ! that I should sleep
in the midst of difficulty ! that I should so indulge the
flesh as to use that rest for ease to my flesh which the
Lord of the hill hath erected only for the relief of
the spirits of pilgrims ! How many steps have I taken
in vain ! Thus it happened to Israel ; for their sin they
were sent back again by the way of the Red Sea ; and
I am made to tread those steps with sorrow, which I
might have trod with delight, had it not been for this
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
sinful sleep. How far might I have been on my way by
this time ! I am made to tread those steps thrice over,
which I needed not to have trod but once : yea, now also
I am like to be benighted, for the day is almost spent.
Oh, that I had not slept !
Now by this time he was come to the arbor again,
where for a while he sat down and wept ; but at last
(as Providence would have it), looking sorrowfully down
under the seat, there he espied his roll, the which he
with trembling and haste catched up, and put it into
his bosom. But who can tell how joyful this man was
when he had gotten his roll again ? For this roll was
the assurance of his life, and acceptance at the desired
haven. Therefore he laid it up in his bosom, gave
thanks to God for directing his eye to the place where
it lay, and with joy and tears betook himself again to
his journey. But oh, how nimbly did he go up the
rest of the hill ! Yet before he got up, the sun went
down upon Christian ; and this made him again recall
the vanity of his sleeping to his remembrance ; and
thus he again began to condole with himself : Oh, thou
sinful sleep ! how for thy sake am I like to be benighted
in my journey ! I must walk without the sun, darkness
must cover the path of my feet, and I must hear the
noise of the doleful creatures, because of my sinful
sleep! Now also he remembered the story that Mis-
trust and Timorous told him of, how they were fright-
ened with the sight of the lions. Then said Christian
to himself again, These beasts range in the night for
their prey, and if they should meet with me in the
dark, how should I shift them? how should I escape
being by them torn in pieces ? Thus he went on his
way. But while he was bewailing his unhappy mis-
conduct, he lifted up his eyes, and behold, there was a
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 37
very stately palace before him, the name of which was
Beautiful, and it stood by the highway-side.
So I saw in my dream that he made haste, and went
forward, that if possible he might get lodging there.
Now before he had gone far, he entered into a very
narrow passage, which was about a furlong off the
Porter's lodge ;* and looking very narrowly before him
as he went, he espied two lions in the way. Now,
thought he, I see the dangers that Mistrust and
Timorous were driven back by. (The lions were
chained, but he saw not the chains.) Then he was
afraid, and thought also himself to go back after them ;
for he thought nothing but death was before him. But
the Porter at the lodge, whose name is Watchful, per-
ceiving that Christian made a halt, as if he would go
back, cried unto him, saying, Is thy strength so small ?
Fear not the lions, for they are chained, and are placed
there for trial of faith where it is, and for discovery of
those that have none : keep in the midst of the path,
and no hurt shall come unto thee.
Then I saw that he went on, trembling for fear of
the lions, but taking good heed to the directions of
the Porter ; he heard them roar, but they did him no
harm. Then he clapped his hands, and went on till
he came and stood before the gate where the Porter
was. Then said Christian to the Porter, Sir, what
house is this? and may I lodge here to-night? The
Porter answered, This house was built by the Lord of
the hill, and he built it for the relief and security of
pilgrims. The Porter also asked whence he was and
whither he was going.
Chr. I am come from the city of Destruction, and
1 Porter's lodge : A house occupied by the porter who kept the gate of the
entrance to the palace grounds.
38 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
am going to Mount Zion : but because the sun is now
set, I desire, if I may, to lodge here to-night.
Poet. What is your name ?
Chr. My name is now Christian, but my name at
the first was Graceless.
Port. But how does it happen that you come so
late ? The sun is set.
Chr. I had been here sooner, but that, wretched
man that I am, I slept in the arbor that stands on
the hillside ! Nay, I had, notwithstanding that, been
here much sooner, but that in my sleep I lost my
roll, and came without it to the brow of the hill ; and
then feeling for it, and not finding it, I was forced with
sorrow of heart to go back to the place where I slept
my sleep, where I found it ; and now I am come.
Port. Well, I will call out one of the maidens of
this place, who will, if she likes your talk, bring you in
to the rest of the family, according to the rules of the
house. So Watchful the porter rang a bell, at the
sound of which came out of the door of the house a
grave and beautiful damsel, named Discretion, and
asked why she was called.
The Porter answered, This man is on a journey
from the city of Destruction to Mount Zion; but
being weary and benighted, he asked me if he might
lodge here to-night : so I told him I would call for
thee, who, after discourse had with him, mayest do as
seemeth thee good, even according to the law of the
Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he
was going ; and he told her. She asked him, also, how
he got into the way ; and he told her. Then she asked
him what he had seen and met with in the way, and
he told her. And at last she asked his name. So he
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS on
said, It is Christian ; and I have so much the more a
desire to lodge here to-night, because, by what I per-
ceive, this place was built by the Lord of the hill for
the relief and security of pilgrims. So she smiled, but
the water stood in her eyes ; and, after a little pause,
she said, I will call forth two or three more of the
family. So she ran to the door, and called out Pru-
dence, Piety, and Charity, who, after a little more dis-
course with him, had him into the family; and many
of them meeting him at the threshold of the house,
said, Come in, thou blessed of the Lord : this house
was built by the Lord of the hill on purpose to enter-
tain such pilgrims in. Then he bowed his head, and
followed them into the house. So when he was come
in and sat down, they gave him something to drink,
and consented together that, until supper was ready,
some of them should have some particular discourse
with Christian, for the best improvement of time; and
they appointed Piety, Prudence, and Charity to dis-
course with him.
Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking
together until supper was ready. So when they had
made ready, they sat down to meat. Now the table
was furnished with nice things, and with excellent wine,
and all their talk at the table was about the Lord of
the hill, about what he had done, and wherefore he did
what he did, and why he had builded that house ; and
by what they said, I perceived that he had been a great
warrior, and had fought with and slain him that had the
power of death ; but not without great danger to him-
self, which made me love him the more.
Thus they discoursed together till late at night ;
and after they had committed themselves to their Lord
for protection, they betook themselves to rest. The
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
pilgrim they laid in a large upper chamber, whose win-
dow opened towards the sun-rising. The name of the
chamber was Peace, where he slept till break of day,
and then he awoke and sang. So in the morning they
all got up ; and, after some more discourse, they told
him that he should not depart till they had shown him
the rarities of that place. And first they had him into
the study, where they showed him records of the
greatest antiquity ; in which, as I remember my dream,
they showed him that the Lord of the hill was the Son
of the Ancient of days. Here also was more fully
recorded the acts that he had done, and the names of
many hundreds that he had taken into his service ; and
how he had placed them in such habitations that could
neither be harmed by length of days, nor decays of
Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that
some of his servants had done ;' how they had sub-
dued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained prom-
ises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the violence
of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness
were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and turned
to flight the armies of the aliens.
Then they read again another part of the records of
the house, where it was shown how willing their Lord
was to receive into his favor any, even any, though
they in time past had offered great affronts to his per-
son and proceedings. Here also were several other
histories of many other famous things, of all which
Christian had a view, as of things both ancient and
modern, together with prophecies and predictions of
things that have their certain accomplishment, both to
the dread and amazement of enemies, and the comfort
and solace of pilgrims.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS * Y
The next day they took him, and had him into the
armory, where they showed him all manner of equip-
ments which their Lord had provided for pilgrims, as
sword, shield, helmet, breastplate, of all-prayer, and
shoes that would not wear out. And there was here
enough of this to harness l out as many men for the
service of their Lord as there be stars in the heaven for
They also showed him some of the things with
which some of his servants had done wonderful deeds.
They showed him Moses' rod ; the hammer and nail
with which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers, trumpets,
and lamps too, with which Gideon put to flight the
armies of Midian. Then they showed him the ox-goad
wherewith Shamgar slew six hundred men. They
showed him also the jawbone with which Samson did
such mighty feats. They showed him, moreover, the
sling and stone with which David slew Goliah of Gath ;
they showed him, besides, many excellent things, with
which Christian was much delighted. This done, they
went to their rest again.
Then I saw in my dream, that on the morrow he
got up to go forward, but they desired him to stay till
the next day also ; and then, said they, we will, if the
day be clear, show you the Delectable Mountains ;
which, they said, would yet further add to his comfort,
because they were nearer the desired haven than the
place where at present he was ; so he consented and
stayed. When the morning was up, they had him to
the top of the house, and bid him look south. So he
did, and behold, at a great distance, he saw most
pleasant mountainous country, beautified with woods,
vineyards, fruits of all sorts, flowers also, with springs
1 Harness : To arm ; from harness, an old word for armor.
a 2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
and fountains, very delectable to behold. Then he
asked the name of the country. They said it was
Immanuel's Land ; and it is as common, said they, as
this hill is, to and for all the pilgrims. And when thou
comest there, from thence thou mayest see to the gate
of the Celestial City, as the shepherds that live there
will make appear.
Now he bethought himself of setting forward, and
they were willing he should. But first, said they, let
us go again into the armory. So they did ; and when
he came there they armed him from head to foot
with the best armor, lest perhaps he should meet
with assaults in the way. He being therefore thus
equipped, walked out with his friends to the gate ; and
there he asked the Porter if he saw any pilgrim pass
by. Then the Porter answered, Yes.
Chr. Pray, did you know him ? said he.
Port. 1 asked his name, and he told me it was
Chr. Oh! said Christian, I know him; he is my
townsman, my near neighbor ; he comes from the place
where I was born. How far do you think he may be
Port. He is got by this time below the hill.
Chr. Well, said Christian, good Porter, the Lord
be with thee, and add to all thy blessings much increase
for the kindness thou hast showed me.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS a*
THE FOURTH STAGE
Then he began to go forward ; but Discretion, Piety,
Charity, and Prudence would accompany him down to
the foot of the hill. So they went on together, repeat-
ing their former discourses, till they came to go down
the hill. Then said Christian, As it was difficult coming
up, so far as I can see, it is dangerous going down.
Yes, said Prudence, so it is ; for it is a hard matter for
a man to go down into the valley of Humiliation, as
thou art now, and to meet with no fall or mishap by the
way; therefore, said she, we are come out to accom-
pany thee down the hill. So he began to go down the
hill, but very warily ; }~et he caught a slip or two.
Then I saw in my dream, that these good com-
panions, when Christian was got down to the bottom
of the hill, gave him a loaf of bread, a bottle of wine,
and a cluster of raisins ; and then he went on his way.
But now, in this valley of Humiliation, poor Chris-
tian was hard put to it ; for he had gone but a little
way before he espied a foul fiend coming over the field
to meet him : his name is Apollyon. Then did Chris-
tian begin to be afraid, and to cast in his mind whether
to go back or to stand his ground. But he considered
again, that he had no armor for his back, and therefore
thought that to turn the back to him might give him
greater advantage with ease to pierce him with his
darts ; therefore he resolved to venture and stand his
ground : for, thought he, had I no more in mine eye
than the saving of my life, it would be the best way to
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the
monster was hideous to behold; he was clothed with
scales like a fish, and they are his pride ; he had wings
like a dragon, and feet like a bear ; and from him came
fire and smoke ; and his mouth was as the mouth of a
lion. When he was come up to Christian, he beheld
him with a disdainful countenance, and thus began to
Apollyon. Whence came you, and whither are you
Chr. I am come from the city of Destruction, which
is the place of all evil, and I am going to the city of
Apol. By this I perceive that thou art one of my
subjects ; for all that country is mine, and I am the
prince and god of it. How is it, then, that thou hast
run away from thy king ? Were it not that I hope
thou mayest do me more service, I would strike thee
now at one blow to the ground.
Chr. I was, indeed, born in your dominions, but
your service was hard, and your wages such as man
could not live on ; for the wages of sin is death ; there-
fore, when I was come to years, I did, as other consid-
erate persons do, look out if perhaps I might mend
Apol. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose
his subjects, neither will I as yet lose thee ; but since
thou complainest of thy service and wages, be content
to go back, and what our country will afford I do here
promise to give thee.
Chr. But I have let myself to another, even to the
King of princes ; and how can I with fairness go back
with thee ?
Apol. Thou hast done in this according to the
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 45
proverb, " changed a bad for a worse ; " but it is ordi-
nary for those that have professed themselves his
servants, after a while to give him the slip, and return
again to me. Do thou so too, and all shall be well.
Chr. I have given him my faith, and sworn my
allegiance to him ; how then can I go back from this,
and not be hanged as a traitor.
Apol. Thou didst the same by me, and yet I am
willing to pass by all, if now thou wilt yet turn again
and go back.
Chr. What I promised thee was before I was of
age : and besides, I count that the Prince under whose
banner I now stand is able to absolve me, yea, and to
pardon also what I did as to my compliancy with thee.
And besides, oh, thou destroying Apollyon, to speak
truth, I like his service, his wages, his servants, his gov-
ernment, his company, and country, better than thine ;
therefore leave off to persuade me further : I am his
servant, and I will follow him.
Apol. Consider again, when thou art in cold blood,
what art thou like to meet with in the way that thou
goest. Thou knowest that for the most part his
servants come to an ill end, because they are trans-
gressors against me and my ways. How many of
them have been put to shameful deaths ! And besides,
thou countest his service better than mine ; whereas
he never yet came from the place where he is, to
deliver any that served him out of their enemies'
hands : but as for me, how many times, as all the
world very well knows, have I delivered, either by
power or fraud, those that have faithfully served me,
from him and his, though taken by them ! And so
will I deliver thee.
Chr. His forbearing at present to deliver them, is
46 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
on purpose to try their love, whether they will cleave
to him to the end: and as for the ill end thou say est
they come to, that is most glorious in their account.
For, for present deliverance, they do not much expect
it ; for they stay for their glory ; and then they shall
have it, when their Prince comes in his and the glory
of the angels.
Apol. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy
service to him ; and how dost thou think to receive
wages of him?
Chr. Wherein, O Apollyon, have 1 been unfaith-
ful to him?
Apol. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when
thou wast almost choked in the Slough of Despond.
Thou didst attempt wrong ways to be rid of thy
burden, whereas thou shouldst have stayed till thy
Prince had taken it off. Thou didst simply sleep,
and lose thy choice things. Thou wast almost per-
suaded also to go back at the sight of the lions. And
when thou talkest of thy journey, and of what thou
hast seen and heard, thou art inwardly desirous of
vainglory in all thou sayest or doest.
Chr. All this is true, and much more which thou
hast left out , but the Prince whom I serve and honor
is merciful, and ready to forgive. But besides, these
infirmities possessed me in thy country, for there 1
fell into them, and I have groaned under them, been
sorry for them, and have obtained pardon of my
Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage,
saying, I am an enemy to this Prince ; I hate his
person, his laws, and people : I am come out on pur-
pose to withstand thee.
Chr. Apollyon, beware what you do. for I am in the
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 47
King's highway, the way of holiness ; therefore take
heed to yourself.
Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole
breadth of the way, and said, I am void of fear in this
matter. Prepare thyself to die ; for I swear by my in-
fernal den, that thou shalt go no farther : here will I
spill thy soul. And with that he threw a naming dart
at his breast ; but Christian had a shield in his hand,
with which he caught it, and so prevented the danger
Then did Christian draw his sword, for he saw he
must bestir him; and Apollyon as fast made at him,
throwing darts as thick as hail ; by the which, notwith-
standing all that Christian could do to avoid it, Apollyon
wounded him in his head, his" hand, and foot. This
made Christian give a little back ; Apollyon, therefore,
followed his work mightily, and Christian again took
courage, and resisted as manfully as he could. This
sore combat lasted for above half a day, even till Chris-
tian was almost quite exhausted: for you must know,
that Christian, by reason of his wounds, must needs
grow weaker and weaker.
Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to
gather up close to Christian, and wrestling with him,
gave him a dreadful fall: and with that Christian's
sword flew out of his hand. Then said Apollyon, I am
sure of thee now : and with that he had almost pressed
him to death, so that Christian began to despair of life.
But, as God would have it, while Apollyon was fetch-
ing his last blow, thereby to make a full end of this
good man, Christian nimbly reached out his hand for
his sword, and caught it, saying, Rejoice not against
me, O mine enemy : when I fall, I shall arise ; and with
that gave him a deadly thrust, which made him give
48 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
back, as one that had received his mortal wound,
Christian perceiving that, made at him again, saying,
Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors,
through Him that loved us. And with that Apollyon
spread forth his dragon wings, and sped him away, that
Christian saw him no more.
In this combat no man can imagine, unless he had
seen and heard, as I did, what yelling and hideous roar-
ing Apollyon made all the time of the fight ; he spake
like a dragon : and on the other side, what sighs and
groans burst from Christian's heart. I never saw him
all the while give so much as one pleasant look till he
perceived he had wounded Apollyon with his two-edged
sword ; then, indeed, he did smile, and look upward !
But it was the dreadfullest sight that ever I saw.
So when the battle was over, Christian said, I will
here give thanks to Him that hath delivered me out of
the mouth of the lion, to Him that did help me against
Then there came to him a hand with some of the
leaves of the tree of life, the which Christian took and
applied to the wounds that he had received in the bat-
tle, and was healed immediately. He also sat down in
that place to eat bread, and to drink of the bottle that
was given him a little before : so, being refreshed, he
addressed himself to his journey with his sword drawn
in his hand; for he said, I know not but some other
enemy may be at hand. But he met with no other
affront from Apollyon quite through this valley.
Now at the end of this valley was another, called
the Valley of the Shadow of Death ; and Christian
must needs go through it, because the way to the Celes-
tial City lay through the midst of it. Now, this valley
is a very solitary place. The prophet Jeremiah thus
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 49
describes it : " A wilderness, a land of deserts and pits,
a land of drought, and of the Shadow of Death, a land
that no man " (but a Christian) "passeth through, and
where no man dwelt."
Now here Christian was worse put to it than in his
light with Apollyon, as by the sequel you shall see.
I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was
got to the borders of the Shadow of Death, there met
him two men, children of them that brought up an evil
report of the good land, making haste to go back ; to
whom Christian spake as follows.
Chr. Whither are you going ?
Men. They said, Back, back ; and we would have
you do so too, if either life or peace is prized by you.
Chr. Why, what's the matter ? said Christian.
Men. Matter ! said they ; we were going that way
as you are going, and went as far as we durst ; and in-
deed we were almost past coming back ; for had we
gone a little farther, we had not been here to bring the
news to thee.
Chr. But what have you met with ? said Christian.
Men. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the
Shadow of Death, but that by good hap we looked
before us, and saw the danger before we came to it.
Chr. But what have you seen ? said Christian.
Men. Seen ? why, the valley itself, which is as dark
as pitch : we also saw there the hobgoblins, monsters,
and dragons of the pit : we heard also in that valley a
continual howling and yelling, as of people under un-
utterable misery, who there sat bound in affliction and
irons : and over that valley hang the discouraging clouds
of confusion : Death also doth always spread his wings
over it. In a word, it is every whit dreadful, being
utterly without order.
r G THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Chr. Then, said Christian, I perceive not yet, by
what you have said, but that this is my way to the
Men. Be it thy way ; we will not choose it for ours.
So they parted, and Christian went on his way, but
still with his sword drawn in his hand, for fear lest he
should be assaulted.
I saw then in my dream, so far as this valley reached,
there was on the right hand a very deep ditch ; that
ditch is it into which the blind have led the blind in all
ages, and have both there miserably perished. Again,
behold, on the left hand there was a very dangerous
quagmire, into which, if even a good man falls, he finds
no bottom for his foot to stand on ; into that quagmire
Kino- David once did fall, and had no doubt therein
been smothered, had not He that is able plucked him
The pathway was here also exceeding narrows and
therefore good Christian was the more put to it ; for
when he sought, in the dark, to shun the ditch on the
one hand, he was ready to tip over into the mire on the
other ; also, when he sought to escape the mire, with-
out great carefulness he would be ready to fall into the
ditch. Thus he went on, and I heard him here sigh
bitterly ; for besides the clanger mentioned above, the
pathway was here so dark, that ofttimes when he lifted
up his foot to go forward, he knew not where or upon
what he should set it next.
When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate
-.condition some considerable time, he thought he heard
the voice of a man, as going before him, saying, Though
I walk through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, I
will fear no evil, for thou art with me.
Then was he was glad, and that for these reasons :
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS r z
First, Because he gathered from thence, that some
who feared God were in this valley as well as himself.
Secondly, For that he perceived God was with them,
though in that dark and dismal state. And why not,
thought he, with me, though by reason of the difficulty
that attends this place, I can not perceive it.
Thirdly, For that he hoped (could he overtake them)
to have company by and by. So he went on, and called
to him that was before ; but he knew not what to an-
swer, for that he also thought himself to be alone. And
by and by the day broke : then said Christian, " He hath
turned the shadow of death into the morniner."
Now morning being come, he looked back, not out
of desire to return, but to see, by the light of the day,
what hazards he had gone through in the dark. So he
saw more perfectly the ditch that was on the one hand,
and the quagmire that was on the other ; also, how narrow
the wa} r was which led betwixt them both. Also, now
he saw the hobgoblins, and monsters, and dragons of the
pit, but all afar off ; for after break of day they came
not nigh; yet they were discovered to him, according
to that which is written, " He discovereth deep things
out of darkness, and bringeth out to light the shadow
Now was Christian much affected with this deliv-
erance from all the dangers of his solitary way; which
dangers, though he feared them much before, yet he
saw them more clearly now, because the light of the
day made them conspicuous to him. And about this
time the sun was rising, and this was another mercy to
Christian; for you must note, that though the first part
of the Valley of the Shadow of Death was dangerous,
yet this second part, which he must go through, was, if
possible, far more dangerous ; for, from the place where
r 2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
he now stood, even to the end of the valley, the way
was all along set so full of snares, traps, gins, and nets
here, and so full of pits, pitfalls, deep holes, and shelv-
ings-down there, that had it now been dark, as it was
when he came the first part of the way, had he had a
thousand souls, they had in reason been cast away ; but,
as I said, just now the sun was rising. Then said he,
" His candle shineth on my head, and by his light I go
In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the
valley. Now I saw in my dream, that at the end of the
valley lay blood, bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of
men, even of pilgrims that had gone this way formerly ;
and while I was musing what should be the reason, I
espied a little before me a cave, where two giants dwelt
in old times ; by whose power and tyranny the men
whose bones, blood, and ashes lay there, were cruelly
put to death. But by this place Christian went with-
out much danger, whereat I somewhat wondered \ but I
have learnt since, that one of the giants has been dead
many a day ; and as for the other, though he be yet
alive, he is, b} r reason of age, and also of the many hard
knocks that he met with in his younger days, grown so
crazy and stiff in his joints that he can now do little
more than sit in his cave's mouth, grinning at pilgrims
as they go by, and biting his nails because he can not
come at them.
So I saw that Christian went on his way ; yet at
the sight of the old man that sat at the mouth of the
cave, he could not tell what to think, especially because
he spoke to him, though he could not go after him, say-
ing, You will never mend till more of you be burned.
But he held his peace, and set a good face on it; and
so went by, and got no hurt.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
THE FIFTH STAGE
Now, as Christian went on his way, he came to a
little ascent, which was cast up on purpose that pil-
grims might see before them : up there, therefore,
Christian went ; and looking forward, he saw Faithful
before him upon his journey. Then said Christian
aloud, Ho, ho ; so, ho, stay, and I will be your compan-
ion. At that Faithful looked behind him ; to whom
Christian cried again, Stay, stay, till I come up to you.
But Faithful answered, No, I am upon my life, and the
Avenger of Blood is behind me.
At this Christian was somewhat moved, and putting
to all his strength, he quickly got up with Faithful, and
did also overrun him ; so the last was first. Then did
Christian vaingloriously smile, because he had gotten
the start of his brother ; but not taking good heed to
his feet he suddenly stumbled and fell, and could not
rise again until Faithful came up to help him.
Then I saw in my dream, they went very lovingly
on together, and had sweet discourse of all things that
had happened to them in their pilgrimage ; and thus
Chr. My honored and well-beloved brother Faith-
ful, I am glad that I have overtaken you, and that God
has so tempered our spirits that we can walk as com-
panions in this so pleasant a path.
Faith. I had thought, my dear friend, to have your
company quite from our town, but you did get the start
of me ; wherefore I was forced to come thus much of
the wav alone-
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Chr. How long did you stay in the city of De-
struction before you set out after rne on your pilgrim-
Faith. Till I could stay no longer ; for there was
a great talk presently after you were gone out, that
our city would, in a short time, be burnt down to the
ground with fire from heaven.
Chr. What, did your neighbors talk so ?
Faith. Yes, it was for awhile in everybody's mouth.
Chr. What, and did no more of them but you come
out to escape the danger ?
Faith. Though there was, as I said, a great talk
thereabout, yet I do not think they did firmly believe
it ; for, in the heat of the discourse, I heard some of
them deridingly speak of you and of your desperate
journey, for so they called this your pilgrimage. But I
did believe, and do still, that in the end our city will
be destroyed ; and therefore 1 have made my escape.
Chr. Did you hear no talk of neighbor Pliable ?
Faith. Yes, Christian, I heard that he followed
you till he came to the Slough of Despond, where, as
some said, he fell in ; but he would not be known to
have so done : but I am sure he was completely be-
daubed with that kind of dirt.
Chr. And what said the neighbors to him ?
Faith. He hath, since his going back, been held
greatly in derision, and that among all sorts of people :
some do mock and despise him, and scarce will any set
him to work. He is now seven times worse than if he
had never gone out of the city.
Chr. But why should they be so set against him,
since they also despise the way that he forsook?
Faith. Oh, they say, Hang him ; he is a turncoat :
he was not true to his profession ! I think God has
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 55
stirred up even His enemies to hiss at him, and make
him a proverb, because he hath forsaken the way.
Chr. Had you no talk with him before you came
Faith. I met him once in the streets, but he looked
away toward the other side, as one ashamed of what he
had done ; so I spake not to him.
Chr. Well, at my first setting out I had hopes of
that man ; but now I fear he will perish in the over-
throw of the city.
Faith. These are my fears of him, too ; but who
can hinder that which will be ?
Chr. Well, neighbor Faithful, said Christian, let us
leave him, and talk of things that more immediately
concern ourselves. Tell me now what you have met
with in the way as you came ; for I know you have
met with some things, or else it may be writ for a
Faith. I escaped the slough that I perceived you
fell into, and got up to the gate without that danger •,
only I met with one whose name was Wanton, who had
like to have done me mischief.
Chr. It was well you escaped her net : Joseph was
hard put to it by her, and he escaped as you did ; but
it had like to have cost him his life. But what did she
do to you ?
Faith. You cannot think (but that you know some-
thing) what a flattering tongue she had ; she lay at me
hard to turn aside with her, promising me all manner of
Chr. Did you meet with no other assault as you
Faith. When I came to the foot of the hill called
Difficulty, I met with a very aged man, who asked me
^6 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
what I was, and whither bound. I told him that I was
a pilgrim, going to the Celestial City. Then said the
old man, Thou lookest like an honest fellow ; wilt thou
be content to dwell with me for the wages that I shall
give thee ? Then I asked his name, and where he
dwelt. He said his name was Adam the First, and that
he dwelt in the town of Deceit. I asked him then
what was his work, and what the wages that he would
give. He told me that his work was many delights ; and
his wages, that I should be his heir at last. I further
asked him, what house he kept, and what other servants
he had. So he told me that his house was maintained
with all the dainties of the world, and that he had many
servants. Then I asked, how long time he would have
me live with him ; and he told me, as long as he lived
Che. Well, and what conclusions came the old man
and you to at last ?
Faith. Why, at first I found myself somewhat in-
clinable to go with the man, for I thought he spoke
very fair ; but looking in his forehead, as I talked with
him, I saw there written, " Put off the old man with
Chr. And how then ?
Faith. Then it came burning hot into my mind,
that, whatever he said, and however he flattered, when
he got me home to his house he would sell me for a
slave. So I bid him forbear to talk, for I would not
come near the door of his house. Then he reviled me,
and told me that he would send such a one after me
that should make my way bitter to my soul. So I
turned to go away from him ; but just as I turned my-
self to go thence, I felt him take hold of my flesh, and
give me such a deadly twitch back, that I thought he
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS rh
had pulled part of me after himself : this made me cry,
" Oh, wretched man ! " So I went on my way up the
Now, when I got about half the way up, I looked be-
hind me and saw one coming after me, swift as the
wind ; so he overtook me just about the place where
the bench stands.
Just there, said Christian, did I sit down to rest me ;
but, being overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll out
of my bosom.
Faith. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as
the man overtook me, it was but a word and a blow ;
for down he knocked me and laid me for dead. But
when I was a little come to myself again, I asked him
wherefore he served me so. He said because of my
secret inclining to Adam the First. And with that he
struck me another deadly blow on the breast, and beat
me down backward ; so I lay at his feet as dead as
before. So when I came to myself again, I cried, have
mercy ; but he said, I know not how to show mercy ;
and with that he knocked me down again. He had
doubtless made an end of me, but that One came by
and bid him forbear.
Chr. Who was that that bid him forbear ?
Faith. I did not know Him at first ; but as He went
by, I perceived the holes in His hands and His side ;
then I concluded that He was our Lord. So I went up
Chr. That man that overtook you was Moses. He
spareth none ; neither knoweth he how to show mercy
to those that transgress his law.
Faith. I know it very well ; it was not the first
time that he has met with me. 'Twas he that came to
me when I dwelt securely at home, and that told me
rg THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
that he would burn my house over my head if I staid
Chr. But did you not see the house that stood
there on the top of the hill, on the side of which Moses
Faith. Yes, and the lions too, before I came at it.
But, for the lions, I think they were asleep, for it was
about noon ; and because I had so much of the day be-
fore me, I passed by the porter and came down the hill.
Chr. He told me, indeed, that he saw you go by ,
but I wish that you had called at the house, for they
would have showed you so many rarities that you
would scarce have forgot them to the day of your
death. But pray tell me, did you meet anybody in the
Valley of Humility ?
Faith. Yes, I met with one Discontent, who would
willingly have persuaded me to go back again with
him : his reason was, because the valley was altogether
without honor. He told me, moreover, that to go there
was the way to disoblige all my friends, as Pride, Arro-
gancy, Self-Conceit, Worldly Glory, with others, who
he knew, as he said, would be very much offended if I
made such a fool of myself as to wade through this
Chr. Well, and how did you answer him ?
Faith. I told him, that although all these that he
named might claim a kindred to me, and that rightly
(for indeed they were my relations, according to the
flesh), yet since I became a pilgrim they have disowned
me, and I also have rejected them ; and therefore they
were to me now no more than if they had never been
of my lineage. I told him, moreover, that as to this
valley, he had quite misrepresented the thing ; for be-
fore honor is humility, and a haughty spirit before a
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
fall. Therefore, said I, I had rather go through this
valley to the honor that was so accounted by the wisest,
than choose that which he esteemed most worthy of our
Chr. Met you with nothing else in that valley ?
Faith. Yes, I met with Shame ; but of all the men
that I met with on my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the
wrong name. The others would be said nay, after a
little argumentation, and somewhat else ; but this bold-
faced Shame would never have done.
Chr. Why, what did he say to you ?
Faith. What ? Why, he objected against religion
itself. He said it was a pitiful, low, sneaking business
for a man to mind religion. He said that a tender con-
science was an unmanly thing ; and that for a man to
watch over his words and ways, so as to tie up himself
from that blustering liberty that the brave spirits of the
times accustom themselves unto, would make him the
ridicule of the times. He objected also, that but a few
of the mighty, rich, or wise, were ever of my opinion ;
nor any of them neither, before they were persuaded
to be fools, and to venture the loss of all for nobody
knows what. He, moreover, objected to the base and
low estate and condition of those that were chiefly the
pilgrims of the times in which they lived ; also their
ignorance and want of understanding in all natural
knowledge. Yea, he did hold me to it at that rate also,
about a great many more things than here I relate ; as,
that it was a shame to sit whining and mourning under
a sermon, and a shame to come sighing and groaning
home ; that it was a shame to ask my neighbor forgive-
ness for petty faults, or to make restitution where I
have taken from any. He said also, that religion made
a man grow strange to the great, because of a few vices,
(So THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
which he called by finer names, and made him own and
respect the base, because of the same religious frater-
nity : and is not this, said he, a shame ?
Chr. And what did you say to him ?
Faith. Say ? I could not tell what to say at first.
Yea, he put me so to it, that my blood came up in my
face ; even this Shame fetched it up, and had almost
beat me quite off ; but at last I began to consider that
that which is highly esteemed among men, is had in
abomination with God. And I thought again, this
Shame tells me what men are ; but he tells me nothing
what God or the word of God is. And I thought,
moreover, that at last we shall not be judged according
to the insolent spirits of the world, but according to
the wisdom and the law of the Highest. Therefore,
thought I, what God says is indeed best, though all the
men in the world are against it.
Chr. I am glad, my brother, that thou didst with-
stand this villain so bravely ; for of all, as thou sayest,
I think he has the wrong name : for he is so bold as to
follow us in the streets, and to attempt to put us to
shame before all men : that is, to make us ashamed of
that which is good. But if he was not himself auda-
cious, he would never attempt to do as he does. But
let us still resist him ; for, notwithstanding all his
bravadoes, he promoteth the fool, and none else.
"The wise shall inherit glory," said Solomon; "but
shame shall be the promotion of fools."
Faith. I think we must cry to Him for help against
Shame, that would have us to be valiant for truth upon
Chr. You say true ; but did you meet with nobody
else in that valley?
Faith. No, not I ; for I had sunshine all the rest of
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 6 1
the way through that, and also through the Valley of
the Shadow of Death.
Chr. 'Twas well for you; I am sure it fared far
otherwise with me. I had for a long season, as soon
almost as I entered into that valley, a dreadful combat
with that foul fiend Apollyon ; yea, I thought verily
he would have killed me, especially when he got me
down, and crushed me under him, as if he would have
crushed me to pieces ; for, as he threw me, my sword
flew out of my hand : nay, he told me he was sure of
me ; but I cried unto God, and he heard me, and de-
livered me out of all my troubles. Then I entered
into the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and had no
light for almost half the way through it. I thought
over and over I should have been killed there ; but at
last day brake, and the sun rose, and I went through
that which was behind with far more ease and quiet.
Moreover, I saw in my dream, that as they went on,
Faithful, as he chanced to look on one side, saw a man
whose name was Talkative, walking at a distance beside
them ; for in this place there was room enough for
them all to walk. He was a tall man, and something
more comely at a distance than at hand. To this man
Faithful addressed himself in this manner.
Faith. Friend, whither away? Are you going to
the heavenly country ?
Talk. I am going to the same place.
Faith. That is well ; then I hope we may have your
good company ?
Talk. With a very good will, will I be your com-
Faith. Come on, then, and let us go together, and
let us spend our time in discoursing of things that are
62 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Talk. To talk of things that are good, to me is very
acceptable, with you or with any other ; and I am glad
that I have met with those that incline to so good a
work ; for to speak the truth, there are but few who
care thus to spend their time as they are in their
travels, but choose much rather to be speaking of
things to no profit; and this hath been a trouble to me.
Faith. That is, indeed, a thing to be lamented ; foi
what thing so worthy of the use of the tongue and
mouth of men on earth, as are the things of the God of
Talk. I like you wonderful well, for your sayings
are full of conviction ; and I will add, What thing is
so pleasant, and what so profitable, as to talk of the
things of God? What things so pleasant? that is, if
a man hath any delight in things that are wonderful.
For instance, if a man doth delight to talk of the his-
tory, or the mystery of things ; or if a man doth love
to talk of miracles, wonders, or signs, where shall he
find things recorded so delightful, and so sweetly
penned, as in the Holy Scripture?
Faith. Well, then, said Faithful, what is that one
thing that we shall at this time found our discourse
Talk. What you will. I will talk of things heav-
enly, or things earthly ; things moral, or things evan-
gelical ; things sacred, or things profane ; things past,
or things to come ; things foreign, or things at home ;
things more essential, or things circumstantial : pro-
vided that all be done to our profit.
Now did Faithful begin to wonder ; and stepping to
Christian (for he walked all this while by himself), he said
to him, but softly, What a fine companion have we got!
Surely, this man will make a very excellent pilgrim.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 63
At this Christian modestly smiled, and said, This
man, with whom you are so taken, will beguile with
this tongue of his twenty of them that know him not.
Faith. Do you know him, then ?
Chr. Know him? Yes, better than he knows
Faith. Pray, what is he ?
Chr. His name is Talkative : he dwelleth in our
town. I wonder that }^ou should be a stranger to him,
only I consider that our town is large.
Faith. Whose son is he ? And whereabout doth
Chr. He is the son of one Saywell. He dwelt in
Prating-Row ; and he is known to all that are ac-
quainted with him by the name of Talkative of Prating-
Row ; and, notwithstanding his fine tongue, he is but
a miserable fellow.
Faith. Well, he seems to be a very nice sort of a
Chr. That is to them that have not a thorough ac-
quaintance with him, for he is best abroad ; near home
he is ugly enough. Your saying that he is a nice
man, brings to my mind what I have observed in the
work of a painter, whose pictures show best at a dis-
tance ; but very near, more unpleasing.
Faith. But I am ready to think you do but jest,
because you smiled.
Chr. God forbid that I should jest (though I smiled)
in this matter, or that I should accuse any falsely. I
will give you a further discovery of him. This man is
for any company, and for any talk ; as he talketh now
with you, so will he talk when he is on the ale-bench ;
and the more drink he hath in his head, the more of
these things he hath in his mouth. Religion hath no
64 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
place in his heart, or house, or conversation ; all he
hath lieth in his tongue, and his religion is to make a
Faith. Say you so ? Then am I in this man greatly
Chr. Deceived ! you may be sure of it. Remember
the proverb, " They say and do not ; " but " the kingdom
of God is not in word, but in power." He talketh of
prayer, of repentance, of faith, and of the new birth ;
but he knows but only to talk of them. I have been
in his family, and have observed him both at home and
abroad ; and I know what I say of him is the truth.
His house is as empty of religion as the white of an
egg is of savor. There is there neither prayer, nor
sign of repentance for sin ; yea, the brute in his kind
serves God far better than he. He is the very stain,
reproach, and shame of religion to all that know him ;
it can hardly have a good word in all that end of the
town, where he dwells, through him. Thus say the
common people that know him, " A saint abroad, and a
devil at home." His poor family finds it so ; he is
so unreasonable with his servants, that they neither
know how to do for or speak to him. Men that have
any dealings with him say, " It is better to deal
with a Turk than with him, for fairer dealings they
shall have at their hands." This Talkative (if it be
possible) will go beyond them, defraud, beguile, and
overreach them. Besides, he brings up his sons to fol-
low his steps ; and if he finds in any of them a foolish
timorousness (for so he calls the first appearance of a
tender conscience), he calls them fools and blockheads,
and by no means will employ them in much, or speak to
their commendation before others. For my part, I am
of opinion that he has, by his wicked life, caused many
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS fc
to stumble and fall ; and will be, if God prevents not,
the ruin of many more.
Faith. Well, my brother, I am bound to believe
you, not only because you say you know him, but also
because, like a Christian, you make your reports of men.
For I cannot think that you speak these things of ill-
will, but because it is even so as you say.
Chr. Had I known him no more than you, I might,
perhaps, have thought of him as at the first you did ]
yea, had I received this report at their hands only that
are enemies to religion, I should have thought it had
been a slander — a lot that often falls from bad men's
mouths upon good men's names and professions. But
all these things, yea, and a great many more as bad,
of my own knowledge, I can prove him guilty of!
Besides, good men are ashamed of him; they can
neither call him brother or friend; the very naming
of him among them makes them blush, if they know
Faith. Well, I see that saying and doing are two
things, and hereafter I shall better observe this dis-
Chr. They are two things, indeed, and are as different
as are the soul and the body ; for as the body without
the soul is but a dead carcass, so saying, if it be alone,
is but a dead carcass also. The soul of religion is the
practical part. " Pure religion and undefiled before
God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and
widows in their affliction, and to keep himself un-
spotted from the world." This Talkative is not aware
of; he thinks that hearing and saying will make a good
Christian ; and thus he deceiveth his own soul. Hear-
ing is but as the sowing of the seed ; talk is not suffi-
cient to prove that fruit is indeed in the heart and life.
66 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
And let us assure ourselves, that at the day of doom
men shall be judged according to their fruits. It will
not be said then, Did you believe ? but, Were you
doers, or talkers only? and accordingly shall they be
judged. The end of the world is compared to our
harvest, and you know men at harvest regard nothing
but fruit. Not that anything can be accepted that is
not of faith ; but I speak this to show you how insignifi-
cant the profession of Talkative will be at that day.
Faith. Well, I was not so fond of his company at
first, but I am as sick of it now. What shall we do to
be rid of him ?
Chr. Take my advice, and do as I bid you, and yon
shall find that he will soon be sick of your company,
too, except God shall touch his heart, and turn it.
Faith. What would you have me do ?
Chr. Why, go to him, and enter into some serious
discourse about the power of religion ; and ask him
plainly (when he has approved of it, for that he will),
whether this thing be set up in his heart, house, or
Then Faithful stepped forward again, and said to
Talkative, Come, what cheer ? How is it now ?
Talk. Thank you, well : I thought we should have
had a great deal of talk by this time.
Faith. Well, if you will, we will fall to it now ; and
since you left it with me to state the question, let it be
Talk. I perceive, then, that our talk must be about
the power of things. Well, it is a very good question,
and I shall be willing to answer you. And take my
answer in brief, thus : First, where the grace of God is
in the heart, it causeth there a great outcry against sin.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 67
Faith. Nay, hold ; let us consider of one at once.
I think you should rather say, It shows itself by inclin-
ing the soul to abhor its sin.
Talk. Why, what difference is there between cry-
ing out against sin, and the abhorring of sin ?
Faith. Oh ! a great deal. A man may cry out
against sin, of policy ; but he can not abhor it but by
virtue of a godly antipathy against it. I have heard
many cry out against sin in the pulpit, who can yet
abide it well enough in the heart, house, and conversa-
tion. Some cry out against sin, even as the mother
cries out against her child in her lap, when she calleth it
naughty girl, and then falls to hugging and kissing it.
Standeth your religion in word or tongue, and not
in deed and truth? Pray, if you incline to answer me
this, say no more than you know the God above will
say Amen to, and also nothing but what your con-
science can justify you in; for not he that commendeth
himself is approved, but whom the Lord commendeth.
Besides, to say T am thus and thus, when my conver-
sation, and all my neighbors, tell me T lie, is great
Then Talkative at first began to blush ; but recover-
ing himself, he thus replied: You come now to experi-
ence, to conscience, and to God ; and to appeal to Him
for justification of what is spoken. This kind of dis-
course I did not expect; nor am I disposed to give an
answer to such questions, because I count not myself
bound thereto, unless you take upon you to be a
catechiser ; and though you should so do, yet I may
refuse to make you my judge. But I pray, will you tell
me why you ask me such questions ?
Faith. Because I saw you forward to talk, and
because I knew not that you were really in earnest.
68 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Besides, to tell you the truth, I have heard of you that
you are a man whose religion lies in talk, and that
your conversation gives this your mouth-profession the
lie. They say you are a spot among Christians, and
that religion fareth the worse for your ungodly conver-
sation; that some have already stumbled at your
wicked ways, and that more are in danger of being
destroyed thereby : your religion, and an ale-house, and
covetousness and uncleanness, and swearing, and lying,
and vain company-keeping will stand together.
Talk. Since you are so ready to take up reports,
and to judge as rashly as you do, I cannot but conclude
you are some peevish or melancholy man, not fit to talk
to ; and so farewell.
Then up came Christian, and said to his brother, I
told you how it would happen ; your words and his
lusts could not agree. He had rather leave your com-
pany than reform his life. But he is gone, as I said :
let him go ; the loss is no man's but his own. He has
saved us the trouble of going from him ; for he con-
tinuing (as I suppose he will do) as he is, would have
been but a blot in our company : besides, the Apostle
says, " From such withdraw thyself."
Faith. But I am glad we had this little discourse
with him ; it may happen that he will think of it again :
however, I have dealt plainly with him, and so am clear
of his blood if he perisheth.
Chr. You did well to talk so plainly to him as you
did. There is but little of this faithful dealing with
men now-a-days, and that makes religion a stench in
the nostrils of so many as it doth ; for they are these
talkative fools, whose religion is only in word, and who
are debauched and vain in their conversation, that
(being so much admitted into the fellowship of the
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 6 9
godly) do puzzle the world, blemish Christianity, and
grieve the sincere. I wish that all men would deal with
such as you have done, then should they either be made
more conformable to religion, or the company of saints
would be too hot for them.
Thus they went on, talking of what they had seen by
the way, and so made that way easy which would other-
wise no doubt have been tedious to them, for now they
went through a wilderness.
THE SIXTH STAGE
Now when they were got almost quite out of this
wilderness, Faithful chanced to cast his eye back, and
espied one coming after them, and lie knew him. Oh !
said Faithful to his brother, who comes yonder? Then
Christian looked and said, It is my good friend Evan-
gelist. Aye, and my good friend too, said Faithful,
for 'twas he that set me on the way to the gate. Now
was Evangelist come up unto them, and thus saluted
Evax. Peace be with you, dearly beloved; and
peace be to your helpers.
Chr. Welcome, welcome, my good Evangelist: the
sight of thy countenance brings to my remembrance
thy ancient kindness and unwearied labors for my eter-
Faith. And a thousand times welcome, said good
Faithful, thy company, O sweet Evangelist ; how de-
sirable is it to us poor pilgrims !
Eva^ 8 Then said Evangelist, How hath it fared
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
with you, my friends, since the time of our last part-
ing? What have you met with, and how have you be-
haved yourselves ?
Then Christian and Faithful told him of all things
that had happened to them in the way ; and how, and
with what difficulty, they had arrived to that place.
Right glad am I, said Evangelist, not that you have
met with trials, but that you have been victors ; and
for that you have, notwithstanding many weaknesses,
continued in the way to this very day.
Chr. Then Christian thanked him for his exhorta-
tions ; but told him withal, that they would have him
speak further to them for their help the rest of the
way; and the rather, for that they well knew that he
was a prophet, and could tell them of things that might
happen unto them, and also how they might resist and
overcome them. To which request Faithful also con-
sented. So Evangelist becran as followeth :
Evan. My sons, you have heard in the word of the
truth of the Gospel, that you must "through many
tribulations enter into the Kingdom of Heaven ; " and
again, that " in every city, bonds and afflictions abide
you ; " and therefore you cannot expect that you should
go long on your pilgrimage without them, in some sort
or other. You have found something of the truth of
these testimonies upon you already, and more will im-
mediately follow : for now, as you see, you are almost
out of this wilderness, and therefore you will soon
come into a town that you will by and by see before
you ; and in that town you will be hardly beset
with enemies, who will strain hard, but they will kill
you ; and be you sure that one or both of you must
seal the testimony which you hold, with blood; buc
" be you faithful unto death, and the King will give you
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS hj
a crown of life." He that shall die there, although his
death will be unnatural, and his pain, perhaps, great,
he will yet have the better of his fellow ; not only
because he will arrive at the Celestial City soonest,
but because he will escape many miseries that the other
will meet with in the rest of his journey. But when
you are come to the town, and shall find fulfilled what
I have here related, then remember your friend, and
quit yourselves like men, and " commit the keeping of
your souls to God in well-doing, as unto a faithful
Then I saw in my dream, that when they were got out
of the wilderness, they presently saw a town before them,
and the name of that town is Vanity ; and at the town
there is a fair x kept, called Vanity Fair. It is kept all the
year long. It beareth the name of Vanity Fair, because
the town where it is kept is lighter than vanity, and also
because all that is there sold, or that cometh thither, is
vanity ; as is the saying of the wise, " All that cometh
This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of
ancient standing. I will show you the original of it.
Almost five thousand years ago there were pilgrims
walking to the Celestial City, as these two honest per-
sons are : and Beelzebub, Apollyon, and Legion, with
their companions, perceiving by the path the pilgrims
made, that their way to the city lay through this town
of Vanity, they contrived here to set up a fair; a fair
wherein should be sold all sorts of vanity, and that it
should last all the year long. Therefore, at this fair
are all such merchandise sold as houses, lands, trades,
places, honors, preferments, titles, countries, kingdoms,
lusts, pleasures; and delights of all sorts, as harlots.
!Fair: See Sketch of Banyan's Life, p. vii.
^2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
wives, husbands, children, masters, servants, lives, blood,
bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious stones, and
And moreover, at this fair there is at all times to be
seen jugglings, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves,
and rogues, and that of every kind.
Here are to be seen, too, and that for nothing, thefts,
murders, adulteries, false-swearers, and that of a blood-
And, as in other fairs of less moment, there are the
several rows and streets under their proper names,
where such and such wares are sold ; so here, like-
wise, you have the proper places, rows, streets (namely,
countries and kingdoms), where the wares of this fair
are soonest to be found. Here is the British Row, the
French Row, the Italian Row, the Spanish Row, the
German Row, where several sorts of vanities are to be
Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just
through this town where this lusty fair is kept ; and he
that would go to the city, and yet not go through
this town, " must needs go out of the world." The
Prince of princes himself, when here, went through this
town to his own country, and that upon a fair-day, too ;
yea, and, as I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief lord of
this fair, that invited him to buy of his vanities, yea,
would have made him lord of the fair, would he but
have done him reverence as he went through the town.
Yea, because he was such a person of honor, Beelzebub
had him from street to street, and showed him all the
kingdoms of the world in a little time, that he might,
if possible, allure that blessed One to cheapen and buy
some of his vanities : but he had no mind to the mer-
chandise, and therefore left the town, without laying
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 73
out so much as one penny upon these vanities. This
fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of long standing,
and a very great fair.
Now, these pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through
this fair. Well, so they did ; but b jhold, even as they
entered into the fair, all the people in the fair were
moved; and the town itself, as it were, in a hubbub
about them, and that for several reasons : for,
First, The Pilgrims were clothed with such kind of
raiment as was different from the raiment of any that
traded in that fair. The people, therefore, of the fair,
made a great gazing upon them ; some said they were
fools ; some, they were madmen ; and some, they were
Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel, so
they did likewise at their speech ; for few could under-
stand what they said. They naturally spoke the lan-
guage of Canaan ; but they that kept the fair were the
men of this world : so that from one end of the fair to
the other, they seemed barbarians each to the other.
Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the
merchandisers was, that these pilgrims set very light by
all their wares. They cared not so much as to look
upon them ; and if they called upon them to buy, they
would put their fingers in their ears, and cry, " Turn
away mine eyes from beholding vanity," and look up-
ward, signifying that their trade or traffic was in
One chanced, mockingly, beholding the behavior of
the men, to say unto them, " What will ye buy? " But
they, looking gravely upon him, said, " We buy the
iruth." At that there was an occasion taken to despise
r.he men the more ; some mocking, some taunting, some
speaking reproachfully, and some calling upon others to
74 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
smite them. At last things came to a hubbub and great
stir in the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded.
Now was word presently brought to the great one of
the fair, who quickly came down, and deputed some of his
most trusty friends to take those men into examination
about whom the fair was almost overturned. So the
men were brought to examination ; and they that ex-
amined them asked them whence they came, whither
they went, and what they did there in such an unusual
garb. The men told them they were pilgrims and
strangers in the world, and that they were going to
their own country, which was the heavenly Jerusalem ;
and that they had given no occasion to the men of the
town, nor yet to the merchandisers, thus to abuse them,
and to hinder them in their journey, except it was for
that, when one asked them what they would buy, they
said they would buy the truth. But they that were ap-
pointed to examine them did not believe them to be
any other than madmen, or else such as came to put
all things into a confusion in the fair. Therefore they
took them and beat them, and besmeared them with
dirt, and then put them into the cage, that they might
be made a spectacle to all the men of the fair. There,
therefore, they lay for some time, and were made the
objects of any man's sport, or malice, or revenge ; the
great one of the fair laughing still at all that befell
them. But the men being patient, and "not rendering
railing for railing, but contrariwise blessing," and giving
good words for bad, and kindness for injuries done,
some men in the fair, that were more observing and
less prejudiced than the rest, began to check and blame
the baser sort for their continual abuses done by them
to the men. They, therefore, in an angry manner let
fly at them again, counting them as bad as the men in
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
the cage, and telling them that they seemed confeder-
ates, and should be made partakers of their misfortunes.
The others replied that, for aught they could see, the
men were quiet and sober, and intended nobody any
harm ; and that there were many that traded in their
fair that were more worthy to be put into the cage, too,
than were the men that they had abused. Thus, after
divers words had passed on both sides (the men be-
having themselves all the while very wisely and soberly
before them), they fell to some blows among themselves,
and did harm one to another. Then were these two
poor men brought before their examiners again, and
were charged as being guilty of the late hubbub that
had been in the fair. So they beat them pitifully, and
hanged irons upon them, and led them in chains up and
down the fair, for an example and terror to others, lest
any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves
unto them. But Christian and Faithful behaved them-
selves yet more wisely, and received the ignominy and
shame that were cast upon them with so much meek-
ness and patience, that it won to their side (though but
few in comparison of the rest) several of the men in
the fair. This put the other party yet into a greater
rage, insomuch that they concluded the death of these
two men. Wherefore they threatened that neither
cage nor irons should serve their turn, but that they
should die for the abuse they had done, and for delud-
ing the men of the fair.
Then were they remanded to the cage again, until
further order should be taken with them. So they put
them in and made their feet fast.
Here, also, they called again to mind what they had
heard from their faithful friend Evangelist, and were
the more confirmed in their way and sufferings by what
76 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
he told them would happen to them. They also now
comforted each other, that whose lot it was to suffer,
even he should have the best of it ; therefore each man
secretly wished that he might have that preferment.
But committing themselves to the all-wise disposal of
Him that ruleth all things, with much content they
abode in the condition in which they were, until they
should be otherwise disposed of.
Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought
them forth to their trial, in order to their condemnation.
When the time was come, they were brought before
their enemies and arraigned. The judge's name was
Lord Hategood ; their indictment was one and the
same in substance, though somewhat varying in form ;
the contents whereof was this : " That they were ene-
mies to, and disturbers of, the trade ; that they had
made commotions and divisions in the town, and had
won a party to their own most dangerous opinions, in
contempt of the law of their prince."
Then Faithful be^iin to answer, that he had onlv set
himself against that which had set itself against Him
that is higher than the highest. And, said he, as for
disturbance, I make none, being myself a man of peace :
the parties that were won to us, were won by beholding
our truth and innocence, and they are only turned
from the worse to the better. And as to the king you
talk of, since he is Beelzebub, the enemy of our Lord, I
defy him and all his angels.
Then proclamation was made, that they that had
aught to say for their lord the king against the prisoner
at the bar, should forthwith appear, and give in their
evidence. So there came in three witnesses, to wit,
Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. 1 They were then
1 Pickthank : A flatterer ; a toady.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS hh
asked if they knew the prisoner at the bar; and what
they had to say for their lord the king against him.
Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect : My
lord, I have known this man a long time, and will attest
upon my oath, before this honorable bench, that he
Judge. Hold ; give him his oath.
So they sware him. Then he said, My lord, this
man, notwithstanding his plausible name, is one of
the vilest men in our country ; he neither regardeth
prince nor people, law nor custom, but doeth all that he
can to possess all men with certain of his disloyal no-
tions, which he in the general calls principles of faith
and holiness. And in particular, I heard him once my-
self affirm, that Christianity and the customs of our
town of Vanity, were entirely opposite, and could not
be reconciled. By which saying, my lord, he doth at
once not only condemn all our laudable doings, but us
in the doing of them.
Then did the judge say to him, Hast thou any more
to say ?
Envy. My lord, I could say much more, only I
would not be tedious to the court. Yet if need be,
when the other gentlemen have given in their evidence,
rather than anything shall be wanting that will despatch
him, I will enlarge my testimony against him. So he
was bid to stand by.
Then they called Superstition, and bid him look
upon the prisoner. They also asked, what he could
say for their lord the king against him. Then they
sware him ; so he began.
Super. My lord, I have no great acquaintance with
this man, nor do I desire to have further knowledge of
him. However, this I know, that he is a very pestilent
jS THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
fellow, from some discourse that I had with him the
other day, in this town ; for then, talking with him, I
heard him say that our religion was naught, and such
by which a man could by no means please God. Which
saying of his, my lord, your lordship very well knows
what necessarily thence will follow, to wit, that we still
do worship in vain, are yet in our sins, and finally shall
be damned : and this is that which I have to say.
Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he
knew in the behalf of their lord the king against the
prisoner at the bar.
Pick. My lord, and you gentlemen all, this fellow I
have known a long time, and have heard him speak
things that ought not to be spoken ; for he hath railed
at our noble prince Beelzebub, and hath spoken con-
temptibly of his honorable friends, whose names are,
the Lord Oldman, the Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord
Luxurious, the Lord Desire of Vain Glory, Sir Having
Greedy, with all the rest of our nobility : and he hath
said, moreover, that if all men were of his mind, it
possible, there is not one of these noblemen should
have any longer a being in this town. Besides, he
hath not been afraid to rail at you, my lord, who are
now appointed to be his judge, calling you an ungodly
villain, with many other such like vilifying terms, with
which he hath bespattered most of the gentry of our
When this Pickthank had told his tale, the judge
directed his speech to the prisoner at the bar, saying,
Thou renegade, heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard
what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against
Faith. May I speak a few words in my own de-
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 79
Judge. Fellow, thou deservest to live no longer,
but to be slain immediately upon the place ; yet, that
all men may see our gentleness toward thee, let us
hear what thou, vile wretch, hast to say.
Faith. 1. I say, then, in answer to what Mr. Envy
hath spoken, I never said aught but this, that what
rule, or laws, or custom, or people, were flat against the
word of God, are wholly opposite to Christianity. If
I have said amiss in this, convince me of my error,
and I am ready here before you to make my recanta-
2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and
his charge against me, I said only this, that in the wor-
ship of God there is required a divine faith ; but there
can be no divine faith without a divine revelation of
the will of God. Therefore, whatever is thrust into the
worship of God that is not agreeable to divine revela-
tion, cannot be done but by a human faith ; which faith
will not be profitable to eternal life.
3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say (avoid-
ing terms, as that I am said to rail, and the like), that
the prince of this town, with all the rabble, his attend-
ants, by this gentleman named, are more fit for being
in hell than in this town and country. And so the
Lord have mercy upon me.
Then the judge called to the jury (who all this while
stood by to hear and observe), Gentlemen of the jury,
you see this man about whom so great an uproar hath
been made in this town ; you have also heard what
these worthy gentlemen have witnessed against him ;
also, you have heard his reply and confession : it lieth
now in your breasts to hang him, or to save his life ;
but yet I think meet to instruct you in our law.
There was an act made in the days of Pharaoh the
So THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Great, servant to our prince, that, lest those of a con
trary religion should multiply and grow too strong for
him, their males should be thrown into the river.
There was also an act made in the days of Nebuchad-
nezzar the Great, another of his servants, that whoever
would not fall down and worship his golden image,
should be thrown into a fiery furnace. There was also
an act made in the days of Darius, that whoso for some
time called upon any god but him, should be cast into
the lion's den. Now, the substance of these laws this
rebel hath broken, not only in thought (which is not to
be borne), but also in word and deed ; which must,
therefore, needs be intolerable.
For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a sup-
position to prevent mischief, no crime being yet ap-
parent ; but here is a crime apparent. For the second
and third, you see he disputeth against our religion ;
and for the treason that he hath already confessed, he
deserveth to die the death.
Then went the jury out, whose names were Mr.
Blindman, Mr. Nogood, Mr. Malice, Mr. Lovelust, Mr.
Liveloose, Mr. Heady, Mr. Highmind, Mr. Enmity,
Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hatelight, and Mr. Implaca-
ble ; who every one gave in his private verdict against
him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously
concluded to bring him in guilty before the judge. And
first among themselves, Mr. Blindman, the foreman,
said, I see clearly that this man is a heretic. Then
said Mr. Nogood, Away with such a fellow from the
earth. Aye, said Mr. Malice, for I hate the very looks
of him. Then said Mr. Lovelust, I could never endure
him. Nor I, said Mr. Liveloose, for he would always
be condemning my way. Hang him, hang him, said
Mr. Heady. A wretched scrub, said Mr. Highmind.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 8 1
My heart riseth against him, said Mr. Enmity. He is a
rogue, said Mr. Liar. Hanging him is too good for
him, said Mr. Cruelty. Let us dispatch him out of the
way, said Mr. Hatelight. Then said Mr. Implacable,
Might I have all the world given me, I could not be
reconciled to him ; therefore let us forthwith bring him
in guilty of death.
And so they did; therefore he was presently con-
demned to be had from the place where he was to the
place from whence he came, and there to be put to the
most cruel death that could be invented.
They therefore brought him out, to do with him ac-
cording to their law ; and first they scourged him, then
they buffeted him, then they lanced his flesh with
knives ; after that, they stoned him with stones, then
pricked him with their swords ; and last of all, they
burned him to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful
to his end.
Now I saw, that there stood behind the multitude a
chariot and a couple of horses waiting for Faithful, who
(so soon as his adversaries had dispatched him) was
taken up into it, and straightway was carried up through
the clouds with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to
the celestial gate. But as for Christian, he had some
respite, and was remanded to prison: so he remained
there for a space. But He who overrules all things,
having the power of their rage in His own hand, so
wrought it about, that Christian for that time escaped
them, and went his way.
82 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
THE SEVENTH STAGE
Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not
forth alone ; for there was one whose name was Hope-
ful (being so made by beholding of Christian and Faith-
ful in their words and behavior, in their sufferings at
the fair), who joined himself unto him, and entering
into a brotherly agreement, told him that he would be
his companion. Thus one died to bear testimony to
the truth, and another rises out of his ashes to be a
companion with Christian in his pilgrimage. This
Hopeful also told Christian that there were many more
of the men in the fair that would take their time and
So I saw, that quickly after they were got out of
the fair, they overtook one that was going before them,
whose name was Byends; so they said to him, What
countryman, sir? and how far go you this way? He
told them that he came from the town of Fairspeech,
and that he was going to the Celestial City ; but told
them not his name.
From Fairspeech ? said Christian ; is there any good
that lives there ?
By. Yes, said Byends, I hope so.
Chr. Pray, sir, what may I call you ? said Christian,
By. I am a stranger to you, and you to me ; if you
be going this way, I shall be glad of your company ; if
not, I must be content.
Chr. This town of Fairspeech, said Christian, I
have heard of; and, as I remember, they say it's a
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 83
By. Yes, I will assure you that it is ; and I have
very many rich kindred there.
Chr. Pray, who are your kindred there, if a man
may be so bold?
By. Almost the whole town ; but in particular my
Lord Turnabout, my Lord Timeserver, my Lord Fair-
speech, from whose ancestors that town first took its
name ; also, Mr. Smoothman, Mr. Facingbothways, Mr.
Anything; and the parson of our parish, Mr. Two-
tongues, was my mother's own brother, by father's side ;
and, to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of
good quality; yet my great-grandfather was but a
waterman, looking one way and rowing another, and I
got most of my estate by the same occupation.
Chr. Are you a married man ?
By. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous woman,
the daughter of a virtuous woman ; she was my Lady
Feigning's daughter ; therefore she came of a very
honorable family, and is arrived to such a pitch of
breeding that she knows how to treat every one, whether
prince or peasant. 'Tis true, we somewhat differ in
religion from those of the stricter sort, yet but in two
small points ; First, we never strive against wind and
tide. Secondly, we are always most zealous when Re-
ligion goes in his silver slippers ; we love much to walk
with him in the street, if the sun shines and the people
Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow
Hopeful, saying, It runs in my mind that this is one
Byends, of Fairspeech ; and if it be he, we have as
very a knave in our company as dwell eth in all these
parts. Then said Hopeful, Ask him ; methinks he
should not be ashamed of his name. So Christian
came up with him again, and said, Sir, you talk as if
84 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
you knew something more than all the world doth ;
and, if I take not yuj mark amiss, I deem I have half a
guess of you. Is not your name Mr. Byends, of Fair-
By. This is not my name, but indeed it is a nick-
name that is given me by some that cannot abide me,
and I must be content to bear it as a reproach, as other
good men have borne theirs before me.
Chr. But did you never give an occasion to men to
call you by this name ?
By. Never, never ! The worst that ever I did to
give them an occasion to give me this name was, that I
had always the luck to agree in my judgment with the
present way of the times, whatever it was, and my chance
was to gain thereby : but if things are thus cast upon me,
let me count them a blessing ; but let not the malicious
load me therefore with reproach.
Chr. I thought, indeed, that you were the man
that I heard of ; and to tell you what I think, I fear
this name belongs to you more properly than you are
willing: we should think it doth.
By. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it ;
you shall find me a fair company- keeper, if you will still
admit me your associate.
Chr. If you will go with us, you must go against
wind and tide ; the w T hich, I perceive, is against your
opinion: you must also own Religion in his rags, as
well as when in his silver slippers ; and stand by him,
too, when bound in irons, as well as when he walketh
the streets with applause.
By. You must not impose, nor lord it over my
faith ; leave me to my liberty, and let me go with you.
Chr. Not a step farther, unless you will do, in what
I propose, as we.
MR. HOLDTHEWORLD AND MR. BYENDS
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 85
Then said Byends, I shall never desert my old prin-
ciples, since they are harmless and profitable. If I may
not go with you, I must do as I did before you overtook
me, even go by myself, until some overtake me that
will be glad of my company.
Now, I saw in my dream, that Christian and Hope-
ful forsook him, and kept their distance before him ;
but one of them, looking back, saw three men follow-
ing Mr. Byends ; and, behold, as they came up with
him, he made them a very low bow; and they also gave
him a compliment. The men's names were, Mr. Hold-
theworld, Mr. Moneylove, and Mr. Saveall, men that
Mr. Byends had formerly been acquainted with; for
when children they were schoolfellows, and were taught
by one Mr. Gripeman, a schoolmaster in Lovegain,
which is a market-town in the county of Coveting, in
the North. The schoolmaster taught them the art of
getting, either by violence, cheating, flattering, lying,
or by putting on a guise of religion ; and these four
gentlemen had attained much of the art of their master,
so that they could each of them have kept such a school
Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each
other, Mr. Moneylove said to Mr. Byends, Who are
they upon the road before us ? For Christian and Hope-
ful were yet within view.
By. They are a couple of fellow-countrymen, that,
after their mode, are going on pilgrimage.
Money. Alas ! why did they not stay, that we might
have had their good company ? for they, and we, and
you, sir, I hope, are all going on pilgrimage.
By. We are so, indeed ; but the men before us are
so rigid, and love so much their own notions, and do
also so lightly esteem the opinions of others, that let a
86 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
man be never so godly, yet if he agrees not with them
in all things, they thrust him quite out of their com-
Save. That is bad ; but we read of some that are
righteous over much, and such men's rigidness prevails
with them to judge and condemn all but themselves.
But I pray, what, and how many, were the things
wherein you differed ?
By. Why, they, after their headstrong manner, con-
clude that it is their duty to rush on their journey all
weathers ; and I am for waiting for wind and tide.
They are for hazarding all for God at a clap ; and I am
for taking all advantages to secure my life and estate.
They are for holding their notions, though all other
men be against them ; but I am for religion in what and
so far as the times and my safety will bear it. They
are for Religion when in rags and contempt ; but I am
for him when he walks in his silver slippers, in the sun-
shine, and with applause.
Holdthewoiild. Aye, and hold you there still,
good Mr. Byends ; for, for my part, I can count him but
a fool, that, having the liberty to keep what he has,
shall be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as ser-
pents. It is best to make hay while the sun shines.
You see how the bee lieth still all winter, and bestirs
her only when she can have profit with pleasure. God
sends sometimes rain, and sometimes sunshine : if they
be such fools to go through the first, yet let us be con-
tent to take fair weather along with us. For my part,
I like that religion best that will stand with the secur-
ity of God's good blessings unto us ,* for who can imagine,
that is ruled by his reason, since God has bestowed
upon us the good things of this life, but that he would
have us keep them for his sake ? Abraham and Solo-
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS $f
mon grew rich in religion ; and Job says, that a good
man shall lay up gold as dust ; but he must not be
such as the men before us, if they be as you have de-
Save. I think that we are all agreed in this matter :
and therefore there needs no more words about it.
Moxey. No, there needs no more words about this
matter, indeed ; for he that believes neither Scripture
nor reason (and you see we have both on our side),
neither knows his own liberty nor seeks his own safety.
Then Christian and Hopeful outwent them again,
and went till they came to a delicate plain called Ease,
where they went with much content ; but that plain
was but narrow, so they were quickly got over it. Now
at the farther side of that plain was a little hill, called
Lucre, and in that hill a silver-mine, which some of
them that had formerly gone that way, because of the
rarity of it, had turned aside to see ; but going too near
the brim of the pit, the ground, being deceitful under
them, broke, and they were slain : some also had been
maimed there, and could not, to their dying day, be
their own men again.
Then I saw in my dream, that a little off the road,
over against the silver-mine, stood Demas 1 (gentleman-
like) to call passengers to come and see ; who said to
Christian and his fellow, Ho ! turn aside hither, and I
will show you a thing.
Chr. What thing so deserving as to turn us out of
the way to see it ?
Demas. Here is a silver-mine, and some digging in
it for treasure : if you will come, with a little pains you
may richly provide for yourselves.
Hope. Then said Hopeful, Let us go see.
i Demas : See 2 Timothy iv. 10.
88 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
Chr. Not I, said Christian : I have heard of this
place before now, and how many have there been slain ;
and besides, that treasure is a snare to those that seek
it, for it hindereth them in their pilgrimage.
Then Christian called to Demas, saying, Is not the
place dangerous ? Hath it not hindered many in their
Demas. Not very dangerous, except to those that
are careless ; but withal he blushed as he spake.
Chr. Then said Christian to Hopeful, Let us not
stir a step, but still keep on our way.
Hope. I will warrant you, when Byends comes up,
if he hath the same invitation as we, he will turn in
thither to see.
Chr. No doubt thereof, for his principles lead him
that way, and a hundred to one but he dies there.
Demas. Then Demas called again, saying, But will
you not come over and see ?
Chr. Then Christian roundly answered, saying,
Demas, thou art an enemy to the right ways of the
Lord of this way, and hast been already condemned for
thine own turning aside, by one of his Majesty's judges ;
and why seekest thou to bring us into the like condem-
nation ? Besides, if we at all turn aside, our Lord the
King will certainly hear thereof, and will there put us to
shame, where we would stand with boldness before him.
Demas cried again, that he also was one of their fra-
ternity ; and that if they would tarry a little, he also
himself would walk with them.
Chr. Then said Christian, What is thy name? Is
it not the same by which I have called thee ?
Demas. Yes, my name is Demas; I am the son of
Chr. I know you : Gehazi was your great-grand-
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 89
father, and Judas your father, and you have trod in
their steps ; it is but a devilish prank that thou usest ,
thy father was hanged for a traitor, and thou deservest
no better reward. Assure thyself, that when we come
to the King, we will tell him of this thy behavior.
Thus they went their way.
By this time Byends and his companions were come
again within sight, and they at the first beck went over
to Demas. Now, whether they fell into the pit by
looking over the brink thereof, or whether they went
down to dig, or whether they were smothered in the
bottom by the damps that commonly arise, of these
things I am not certain ; but this I observed, that they
were never seen again in the way. Then sang Christian,
" Byends and Silver-Demas both agree ;
One calls, the other runs, that he may be
A sharer in his lucre ; so these two
Take up in this world, and no farther go."
Now I saw that, just on the other side of this plain,
the pilgrims came to a place where stood an old monu-
ment, hard by the highway-side, at the sight of which
they were both concerned, because of the strangeness
of the form thereof ; for it seemed to them as if it had
been a woman transformed into the shape of a pillar.
Here, therefore, they stood looking and looking upon
it, but could not for a time tell what they should make
thereof. At last Hopeful espied, written above upon
the head thereof, a writing in an unusual hand ; but he
being no scholar, called to Christian (for he was learned)
to see if he could pick out the meaning : so he came,
and after a little laying of the letters together, he found
the same to be this, " Remember Lot's wife." So he
read it to his fellow ; after which they both concluded
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
that that was the pillar of salt into which Lot's wife
was turned, for her looking back with a covetous heart
when she was going from Sodom for safety. Which
sudden and amazing sight gave them occasion for this
Chr. Ah, my brother, this is a seasonable sight : it
came opportunely to us after the invitation which
Demas gave us to come over to view the hill Lucre ;
and had we gone over, as he desired us, and as thou
wast inclined to do, my brother, we had, for aught I
know, been made, like this woman, a spectacle for those
that shall come after to behold.
Hope. I am sorry that I was so foolish, and am
made to wonder that I am not now as Lot's wife ; for
wherein was the difference betwixt her sin and mine ?
She only looked back, and I had a desire to go see.
Let grace be adored; and let me be ashamed that ever
such a thing should be in mine heart.
I saw then that they went on their way to a pleasant
river, which David the king called "the river of God;''
but John, " the river of the water of life." Now their
way lay just upon the bank of this river : here, there-
fore, Christian and his companion walked with great
delight ; they drank also of the water of the river, which
was pleasant and enlivening to their weary spirits.
Besides, on the banks of this river, on either side, were
green trees with all manner of fruit ; and the leaves
they ate to prevent diseases that are incident to those
that heat their blood by travel. On either side of the
river was also a meadow, curiously beautified with lilies ;
and it was green all the year long. In this meadow
they lay down and slept, for here they might lie down
safely. When they awoke they gathered again of the
fruits of the trees, and drank again of the water of the
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS gi
river, and then lay down again to sleep. Thus they did
several days and nights.
So when they were disposed to go on (for they were
not as yet at their journey's end), they ate, and drank,
Now I beheld in my dream, that they had not jour-
neyed far, but the river and the way for a time parted,
at which they were not a little sorry ; yet they durst
not go out of the way. Now the way from the river
was rough, and their feet tender by reason of their
travels ; so the souls of the pilgrims were much dis-
couraged because of the way. Wherefore, still as they
went on, they wished for a better way. Now, a little
before them, there was on the left hand of the road a
meadow, and a stile 1 to go over into it, and that
meadow is called the By-path meadow. Then said
Christian to his fellow, If this meadow lieth along by
our wayside, let's go over into it. Then he went t(Tthe
stile to see ; and behold, a path lay along by the way on
the other side of the fence. It is according to my wish,
said Christian ; here is the easiest going ; come, good
Hopeful, and let us go over.
Hope. But how if this path should lead us out of
the way ?
That is not likely, said the other. Look, doth it
not go along by the wayside ? So Hopeful, being per-
suaded by his fellow, went after him over the stile.
When they were gone over, and were got into the
path, they found it very easy for their feet ; and withal,
they, looking before them, espied a man walking as
they did, and his name was Vain-Confidence : so they
called after him, and asked him whither that way led.
He said, To the Celestial Gate. Look, said Christian,
* Stile : Steps for crossing a fence or wall.
9 2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
did I not tell you so ? By this you may see we are
right. So they followed, and he went before them.
But behold, the night came on, and it grew very dark;
so they that were behind lost sight of him that went
He, therefore, that went before (Vain-Confidence
by name), not seeing the way before him, fell into a deep
pit, which was on purpose there made, by the prince
of those grounds, to catch vain-glorious fools withal,
and was dashed in pieces with his fall.
Now, Christian and his fellow heard him fall. So
they called to know the matter, but there was none to
answer, only they heard a groaning. Then said Hope-
ful, Where are we now ? Then was his fellow silent,
as mistrusting that he had led him out of the way ; and
now it began to rain, and thunder, and lighten, in a
most dreadful manner, and the water rose rapidly.
Then Hopeful groaned in himself, saying, Oh, that I
had kept on my way !
Chr. Who could have thought that this path should
have led us out of the way ?
Hope. I was afraid on't at the very first, and there-
fore gave you that gentle caution. I would have spoken
plainer, but that you are older than I.
Chr. Good brother, be not offended : I am sorry I
have brought thee out of the way, and that I have put
thee into such imminent danger. Pray, my brother,
forgive me ; I did not do it of an evil intent.
Hope. Be comforted, my brother, for I forgive thee ;
and believe, too, that this shall be for our good.
Chr. I am glad I have with me a merciful brother :
but we must not stand here ; let us try to go back again.
Hope. But, good brother, let me go before.
Chr. No, if you please, let me go first, that if there
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 93
be any danger, I may be first therein, because by my
means we are both gone out of the way.
Hope. No, said Hopeful, you shall not go first, for
your mind being troubled may lead you out of the way
again. Then for their encouragement they heard the
voice of one saying, "Let thine heart be toward the
highway, even the way that thou wentest : turn again."
But by this time the waters were greatly risen, by which
the way of going back was very dangerous. (Then I
thought that it is easier going out of the way when we
are in, than going in when we are out.) Yet they ad-
ventured to go back ; but it was so dark, and the flood
was so high, that in their going back they had like to
have been drowned nine or ten times.
Neither could they, with all the skill they had, get
again to the stile that night. Wherefore at last, light-
ing under a little shelter, they sat down there till the
day brake ; but, being weary, they fell asleep. Now
there was not far from the place where they lay, a
castle, called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was
Giant Despair, and it was in his grounds thev now were
sleeping ; wherefore he, getting up in the morning
early, and walking up and down in his fields, caught
Christian and Hopeful asleep in his grounds. Then
with a grim and surly voice he bid them awake, and
asked them whence they were, and what they did in his
grounds. They told him they were pilgrims, and that
they had lost their way. Then said the giant, You have
this night trespassed on me by trampling in and lying
on my grounds, and therefore you must go along with
me. So they were forced to go, because he was stronger
than they. They had also but little to say, for they
knew themselves in a fault. The giant, therefore,
drove them before him, and put them into his castle,
qa THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
into a very dark dungeon, filthy and evil-smelling to the
spirits of these two men. Here, then, they lay from
Wednesday morning till Saturday night, without
one bit of bread or drop of drink, or light, or any to ask
how they did ; they were, therefore, here in evil case.
and were far from friends and acquaintance. Now, in
this place, Christian had double sorrow, because it was
through his unadvised counsel that they were brought
into this distress.
Now Giant Despair had a wife, and her name was
Diffidence : so lie told his wife what he had done : that
he had taken a couple of prisoners, and cast them into
his dungeon for trespassing on his grounds. Then he
asked her, also, what he had best do further with them.
So she asked him what they were, whence they came,
and whither they were bound ; and he told her. Then
she counselled him, that, when he arose in the morning,
he should beat them without mercy. So when he
arose, he getteth him a grievous crab-tree cudgel, and
goes down into the dungeon to them, and there first
falls to abusing of them as if they were dogs, although
they gave him never a word of provocation. Then he
fell upon them, and beat them fearfully, in such sort
that they were not able to help themselves, or to turn
them upon the floor. This done, he withdraws and
leaves them there to condole their misery, and to mourn
under their distress : so all that day they spent their
time in nothing: but sighs and bitter lamentations. The
next night, she, talking with her husband further about
them, and understanding that they were yet alive, did
advise him to counsel them to make away with them-
selves. So, when morning was come, he goes to them
in a surly manner, as before, and perceiving them to be
very sore with the stripes that he had given them
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 05
the day before, lie told them, that since they were
never like to come out of that place, their only way
would be forthwith to make an end of themselves,
either with knife, halter, or poison ; for why, said he,
should you choose to live, seeing it is attended with
so much bitterness ? But they desired him to let them
go. With that he looked ugly upon them, and rushing
to them, had doubtless made an end of them himself,
but that he fell into one of his fits (for he sometimes in
sunshiny weather fell into fits), and lost for a time the
use of his hands ; wherefore he withdrew, and left
them, as before, to consider what to do. Then did the
prisoners consult between themselves whether it was
best to take his counsel or no ; and thus they began to
Chu. Brother, said Christian, what shall we do?
The life that we now live is miserable. For my part,
I know not whether it is best to live thus, or to die and
have done with it. My soul choose th strangling rather
than life, and the grave is more easy for me than this
dungeon. Shall we be ruled by the giant?
Hope. Indeed our present condition is dreadful,
and death would be far more welcome to me than thus
forever to abide ; but yet, let us consider, the Lord of
the country to which we are going hath said, " Thou
shalt do no murder," no, not to another man's person ;
much more, then, are we forbidden to take his counsel
to kill ourselves. Besides, he that kills another, can
but commit murder upon his body ; but for one to kill
himself, is to kill body and soul at once. But, how-
ever, my brother, let us be patient, and endure a while :
the time may come that may give us a happy release ;
but let us not be our own murderers. With these
words Hopeful at present did moderate the mind of his
9 6 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
brother ; so they continued together in the dark that
day, in their sad and doleful condition.
Well, towards evening the giant goes down into the
dungeon again, to see if his prisoners had taken his
counsel. But when he came there he found them
alive ; and, truly, alive was all ; for now, what for want
of bread and water, and by reason of the wounds they
received when he beat them, they could do little but
breathe. But, I say, he found them alive ; at which he
fell into a grievous rage, and told them, that, seeing
they had disobeyed his counsel, it should be worse with
them than if they had never been born.
At this they trembled greatly, and I think that
Christian fell into a swoon ; but, coming a little to
himself again, they renewed their discourse about
the giant's counsel, and whether yet they had best
take it or no. Now Christian again seemed for
doing it ; but Hopeful made his second reply, as
followeth : —
Hope. My brother, said he, rememberest thou not
how valiant thou hast been heretofore? Apollyon
could not crush thee, nor could all that thou didst hear
or see, or feel, in the Valley of the Shadow of Death.
What hardship, terror, and amazement hast thou al-
ready gone through ; and art thou now nothing but
fears? Thou seest that I am in the dungeon with thee,
a far weaker man by nature than thou art. Also, this
giant hath wounded me as well as thee, and hath also
cut off the bread and water from my mouth, and with
thee I mourn without the light. But let us exercise a
little more patience. Remember how thou playedst the
man at Vanity Fair, and wast neither afraid of the
chain nor cage, nor yet of bloody death ; wherefore,
let us (at least to avoid the shame that it becomes not
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 97
a Christian to be found in) bear up with patience as
well as we can.
Now, night being come again, the giant's wife asked
him concerning the prisoners, and if they had taken his
counsel : to which he replied, They are sturdy rogues ;
they choose rather to bear all hardships than to make
away with themselves. Then said she, Take them into
the castle-yard to-morrow, and show them the bones
and skulls of those that thou hast already dispatched,
and make them believe, ere a week comes to an end,
thou wilt tear them in pieces, as thou hast done their
fellows before them.
So, when the morning was come, the giant goes to
them again, and takes them into the castle-yard, and
shows them as his wife had bidden him. These, said
he, were pilgrims, as you are, once, and they trespassed
on my grounds, as you have done ; and, when I thought
fit, I tore them in pieces ; and so within ten days I will
do you. Go, get you down to your den again. And
with that he beat them all the way thither. They lay,
therefore, all day on Saturday in a lamentable case, as
before. Now, when night was come, Mrs. Diffidence
and her husband the giant began to renew their dis-
course of their prisoners ; and, withal, the old giant
wondered that he could neither by his blows nor counsel
bring them to an end. And with that his wife replied,
I fear, said she, that they live in hopes that some will
come to relieve them ; or that they have picklocks
about them, by the means of which they hope to escape.
And say est thou so, my dear ? said the giant. I will
therefore search them in the morning.
Well, on Saturda} r , about midnight, they began to
pray, and continued in prayer till almost break of day.
Now, a little before it was day, good Christian, as
qS THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
one half amazed, brake out into this passionate speech :
What a fool, said he, am I thus to lie in an evil-smell-
ing dungeon, when I may as well walk at liberty ! I
have a key in my bosom, called Promise, that will, I
am persuaded, open any lock in Doubting Castle.
Then said Hopeful, That is good news : good brother,
pluck it out of thy bosom, and try.
Then Christian pulled it out of his bosom, and began
to try at the dungeon door, whose bolt, as he turned
the key, gave back, and the door flew open with ease,
and Christian and Hopeful both came out. Then he
went to the outward door that leads into the castle-yard,
and with his key opened that door also. After that he
went to the iron gate, for that must be opened too ; but
that lock went desperately hard, yet the key did open
it. They then thrust open the gate to make their
escape with speed ; but that gate, as it opened, made
such a creaking that it waked Giant Despair, who hastily
rising to pursue his prisoners, felt his limbs to fail ; for
his fits took him again, so that he could by no means
go after them. Then they went on and came to the
King's highway, and so were safe, because they were
out of his power.
Now, when they were gone over the stile they began
to contrive with themselves what they should do at that
stile to prevent those that should come after from fall-
ing into the hands of Giant Despair. So they agreed
to erect there a pillar, and to engrave upon the side
thereof this sentence : " Over this stile is the way to
Doubting Castle, which is kept by Giant Despair, who
despiseth the King of the Celestial Country, and seeks
to destroy his holy pilgrims." Many therefore, that
followed after, read what was written, and escaped the
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS qq
THE EIGHTH STAGE
They went then till they came to the Delectable
Mountains, which mountains belong to the Lord of
that hill of which we have spoken before. So they
went up to the mountains, to behold the gardens and
orchards, the vineyards and fountains of water ; where
also they drank and washed themselves, and did freely
eat of the vineyards. Now, there were on the tops of
these mountains shepherds feeding their flocks, and
they stood by the highway -side. The pilgrims, there-
fore, went to them, and leaning upon their staffs (as is
common with weary pilgrims when they stand to talk
with any by the way), they asked, Whose Delectable
Mountains are these ; and whose be the sheep that feed
Shep. These mountains are Emmanuel's land, and
they are within sight of his city ; and the sheep also
are his, and he laid down his life for them.
Chr. Is this the way to the Celestial City ?
Shep. You are just in your way.
Chr. How far is it thither ?
Shep. Too far for any but those who shall get
Chr. Is the way safe or dangerous ?
Shep. Safe for those for whom it is to be safe ; but
transgressors shall fall therein.
Chr. Is there in this place any relief for pilgrims
that are weary and faint in the way ?
Shep. The Lord of these mountains hath given us
IO o THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
a charge not to be forgetful to entertain strangers-,
therefore the good of the place is before you.
I saw also in my dream, that when the shepherds
perceived that they were wayfaring men, 1 they also put
questions to them (to which they made answer as in
other places), as, Whence came you? and, How got you
into the way ? and, By what means have you so perse-
vered therein ? for but few of them that begin to come
hither, do show their face on these mountains. But
when the shepherds heard their answers, being pleased
therewith, they looked very lovingly upon them, and
said, Welcome to the Delectable Mountains.
The shepherds, I say, whose names were Knowledge,
Experience, Watchful, and Sincere, took them by the
hand, and had them to their tents, and made them par-
take of what was ready at present. They said, moreover,
We would that you should stay here a while, to be ac-
quainted with us, and yet more to solace yourselves with
the good of these Delectable Mountains. Then they
told them that they were content to stay. So the} r
went to their rest that night, because it was very late.
Then I saw in my dream, that in the morning the
shepherds called up Christian and Hopeful to walk with
them upon the mountains. So they went forth with
them, and walked a while, having a pleasant prospect
on every side. Then said the shepherds one to another,
Shall we show these pilgrims some wonders ? So, when
they had concluded to do it, they had them first to the
top of a hill called Error, which was very steep on the
farthest side, and bid them look down to the bottom.
So Christian and Hopeful looked down, and saw at the
bottom several men dashed all to pieces by a fall that
they had had from the top. Then said Christian, What
1 Wayfaring men : Travellers.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS IOI
meaneth this ? The shepherds answered, Have you not
heard of them that were made to err by hearkening to
false teachers ? They answered, Yes. Then said the
shepherds, Those that you see lie dashed in pieces at
the bottom of this mountain are they ; and they have
continued to this day unburied, as you see, for an
example to others to take heed how they clamber
too high, or how they come too near the brink of this
Then I saw that they had them to the top of another
mountain, and the name of that is Caution, and bid
them look afar off ; which, when they did, they per-
ceived, as they thought, several men walking up and
down among the tombs that were there ; and they per-
ceived that the men were blind, because they stumbled
sometimes upon the tombs, and because they could not
get out from among them. Then said Christian, What
means this ?
The shepherds then answered, Did you not see, a
little below these mountains, a stile that led into a
meadow, on the left hand of this way? They answered,
Yes. Then said the shepherds, From that stile there
goes a path that leads directly to Doubting Castle,
which is kept by Giant Despair ; and these men (point-
ing to them among the tombs) came once on pilgrimage,
as you do now, even until they came to that same stile.
And because the right way was rough in that place,
they chose to go out of it into that meadow, and there
were taken by Giant Despair, and cast into Doubting
Castle ; where, after they had a while been kept in the
dungeon, he at last did put out their eyes, and led
them among those tombs, where he has left them to
wander to this very day ; that the saying of the wise
man might be fulfilled, " He that wandereth out of the
io2 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
way of understanding shall remain in the congregation
of the dead." Then Christian and Hopeful looked one
upon another, with tears gushing out, but yet said
nothing to the shepherds.
Then said Hopeful to the shepherds, I perceive that
these had on them, even every one, an appearance of
pilgrimage, as we have now ; had they not ?
Shep. Yes, and held it a long time, too.
Hope. How far might they go on in pilgrimage in
their day, since they, notwithstanding, were thus miser-
ably cast away?
Shep. Some farther, and some not so far as these
Then said the pilgrims one to the other, We had
need to cry to the Strong for strength.
Shep. Aye, and you will have need to use it, when
you have it, too.
By this time the pilgrims had a desire to go forward,
and the shepherds a desire they should ; so they walked
together towards the end of the mountains. Then said
the shepherds one to another, Let us here show the pil-
grims the gates of the Celestial City, if they have skill
to look through our spy-glass. The pilgrims then
lovingly accepted the motion : so they had them to
the top of a high hill, called Clear, and gave them the
glass to iook.
Then they tried to look ; but the remembrance of
that last thing that the shepherds had shown them
made their hands shake, by means of which impediment
they could not look steadily through the glass ; yet
they thought they saw something like the gate, and
also some of the glory of the place.
When they were about to depart, one of the shep-
herds gave them a note of the way. Another of them
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS IC >3
bid them beware of the Flatterer. The third bid them
take heed that they slept not upon the Enchanted
Ground. And the fourth bid them God speed. So I
awoke from my dream.
THE NINTH STAGE
And I slept and dreamed again, and saw the same
two pilgrims going down the mountains along the high-
way towards the city. Now, a little below these moun-
tains, on the left hand, lieth the country of Conceit,
from which country there comes into the way in which
the pilgrims walked a little crooked lane. Here, there-
fore, they met with a very brisk lad that came out of
that country, and his name was Ignorance. So Chris-
tian asked him from what parts he came, and whither
he was going.
Ignor. Sir, I was born in the country that lieth off
there, a little on the left hand, and I am going to the
Chr. But how do you think to get in at the gate,
for you may find some difficulty there ?
Ignor. As other good people do, said he.
Chr. But what have you to show at that gate, that
the gate should be opened to you ?
Ignor. I know my Lord's will, and have been a good
liver ; I pay every man his own ; I pray, fast, support
the church, and give alms, and have left my country for
whither I am going.
Chr. But thou earnest not in at the wicket-gate,
that is, at the head of this way ; thou earnest in hither
ia j. THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
through that same crooked lane, and therefore I fear,
however thou mayest think of thyself, when the reckon-
ing-day shall come, thou wilt have laid to thy charge,
that thou art a thief and a robber, instead of getting
admittance into the city.
Ignor. Gentlemen, ye be utter strangers to me ; I
know you not ; be content to follow the religion of
your country, and I will follow the religion of mine. I
hope all will be well. And as for the gate that you
talk of, all the world knows that it is a great way off of
our country. I cannot think that any man in all our
parts doth so much as know the way to it ; nor need
they mind whether they do or no, since we have, as
you see, a fine, pleasant, green lane, that comes clown
from our country, the next way into the way.
When Christian saw that the man was wise in his
own conceit, he said to Hopeful, whisperingly, " There
is more hope of a fool than of him." And said, more-
over, " When he that is a fool walketh by the way, his
wisdom faileth him, and he saith to every one that he is
a fool." What, shall we talk further with him, or outgo
him at present, and so leave him to think of what he
hath heard already, and then stop again for him after-
wards, and see if by degrees we can do any good by
So they both went on, and Ignorance came after.
Now, when they had passed him a little way, they en-
tered into a very dark lane, where they met a man whom
seven evil spirits had bound with seven strong cords,
and were carrying him back to the door that they saw
on the side of the hill. Now good Christian began to
tremble, and so did Hopeful, his companion ; yet, as
the evil spirits led away the man, Christian looked to
see if he knew him ; and he thought it might be one
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS IO $
Turnaway, that dwelt in the town of Apostasy. But
he did not perfectly see his face, for he did hang his
head like a thief that is found ont.
Then said Christian to his fellow, Now I call to my
remembrance that which was told me of a thing that
happened to a good man hereabout. The name of the
man was Littlefaith ; but a good man, and he dwelt
in the town of Sincere. The thing was this. At the
entering in at this passage, there comes down from
Broadway-gate a lane, called Deadman's lane ; so called
because of the murders that are commonly done there ;
and this Littlefaith going on a pilgrimage, as we do now,
chanced to sit down there and sleep. Now there hap-
pened at that time to come down the lane from Broad-
way-gate, three sturdy rogues, and their names were
Faintheart, Mistrust, and Guilt, three brothers; and
they, espying Littlefaith where he was, came galloping
up with speed. Now, the good man was just awakened
from his sleep, and was getting up to go on his journey.
So they all came up to him, and with threatening lan-
guage bid him stand. At this, Littlefaith looked as
white as a sheet, and had neither power to fight nor fly.
Then said Faintheart, Deliver thy purse ; but he mak-
ing no haste to do it (for he was loth to lose his money),
Mistrust ran up to him, and thrusting his hand into his
pocket, pulled out thence a bag of silver. Then he
cried out, Thieves, thieves ! With that Guilt, with a
great club that was in his hand, struck Littlefaith on
the head, and with that blow felled him flat to the
ground, where he lay bleeding as one that would bleed
to death. All this while the thieves stood by. But,
at last, they hearing that some were upon the road, and
fearing lest it should be one Greatgrace, that dwells in
the town of Good-Confidence, they betook themselves
106 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
to their heels, and left this good man to shift for him-
self. Now, after a while, Littlefaith came to himself,
and getting up, made shift to scramble on his way.
This was the story.
Hope. But did they take from him all that ever he
Chr. No; the place where his jewels were they
never ransacked ; so those he kept still. But, as I was
told, the good man was much afflicted for his loss ; for
the thieves got most of his spending-money. That
which they got not, as I said, were jewels ; also, he had
a little odd money left, but scarce enough to bring him
to his journey's end. Nay (if I was not misinformed).
he was forced to beg as he went, to keep himself alive,
for his jewels he might not sell ; but beg and do what
he could, he Avent hungry the most part of the w r ay.
Hope. But is it not a wonder they got not from
him his certificate, by which he was to receive his ad-
mittance at the Celestial Gate ?
Chr. It is a wonder ; but they got not that, though
they missed it not through any good cunning of his ;
for he, being dismayed by their coming upon him, had
neither power nor skill to hide anything ; so it was
more by good providence than by his endeavor that
they missed of that good thing.
So they went on, and Ignorance followed. They
went on till they came to a place where they saw a
way put itself into their way, and seemed withal to lie
as straight as the way which they should go ; and here
they knew not which of the two to take, for both
seemed straight before them : therefore, here they stood
still to consider. And, as they were thinking about
the way, behold, a man, black of flesh, but covered
with a very white robe, came to them, and asked their
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 107
why they stood there. They answered, they were going
to the Celestial City, but knew not which of these
ways to take. " Follow me," said the man, " it is
thither that I am going." So they followed him in the
way that but now came into the road, which by degrees
turned, and turned them so far from the city that they
desired to go to, that in a little time their faces were
turned away from it ; yet they followed him. But, by
and by, before they were aware, he led them both with-
in the compass of a net, in which they were both so
entangled that they knew not what to do ; and with that
the white robe fell off the black man's back. Then they
saw where they were. Wherefore there they lay crying
some time, for they could not get themselves out.
Chr. Then said Christian to his fellow, Now do I
see myself in an error. Did not the shepherds bid us
beware of the Flatterer ? As is the saying of the wise
man, so we have found it this day : u A man that rlat-
tereth his neighbor, spreadeth a net for his feet."
Hope. The} r also gave us a note of directions about
the way, for our more sure finding thereof ; but therein
we have also forgotten to read, and have not kept our-
selves from the paths of the destroyer. Here David
was wiser than we ; for saith he, " Concerning the
works of men, by the word of Thy lips I have kept me
from the paths of the destroyer." Thus they lay be-
wailing themselves in the net. At last they espied a
Shining One coming towards them, with a whip of
small cords in his hand. When he was come to the
place where they were, he asked them whence they
came, and what they did there. They told him that
they were poor pilgrims going to Zion, but were led
out of their way by a black man clothed in white, who
bid us, said they, follow him, for he was going thither,
10S THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
too. Then said lie with the whip, it is Flatterer, a
false apostle, that hath transformed himself into an
angel of light. So he rent the net, and let the men out.
Then said he to them, Follow me, that I may set you
in your way again. So he led them back to the way
which they had left to follow the Flatterer. Then he
asked them, saying, Where did you lie the last night?
They said, With the shepherds upon the Delectable
Mountains. He asked them then if they had not of the
shepherds a note of direction for the way. The} r an-
swered, Yes. But did you not, said he, when you were
at a stand, pluck out and read your note? They
answered, No. He asked them, Why? They said they
forgot. He asked, moreover, if the shepherds did not
bid them beware of the Flatterer. They answered,
Yes ; but we did not imagine, said they, that this fine-
spoken man was he.
Then I saw in my dream, that he commanded them
to lie down ; which, when they did, he chastised them
sore, to teach them the good way wherein they should
walk ; and as he chastised them, he said, " As many as
I love, I rebuke and chasten ; be zealous, therefore, and
repent." This done, he bids them to go on their way, and
take good heed to the other directions of the shepherds.
Now, after awhile, they perceived afar off, one coming
softly and alone, all along the highway, to meet them.
Then said Christian to his fellow, Yonder is a man
with his back toward Zion, and he is coming to meet us.
Hope. I see him ; let us take heed to ourselves now,
lest he should prove a Flatterer, also. So he drew
nearer and nearer, and at last came up to them. His
name was Atheist, and he asked them whither they
Che,. We are going to Mount Zion.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS 109
Then Atheist fell into a very great laughter.
Chr. What's the meaning of your laughter ?
Atheist. I laugh to see what ignorant persons you
are to take upon you so tedious a journey, and yet are
like to have nothing but your travel for your pains.
Chr. Why, man, do you think we shall not be re-
Atheist. Received ! There is not such a place as
you dream of in all this world.
Chr. But there is in the world to come.
Atheist. When I was at home in w\y own country
I heard as you now affirm ; and from that hearing, went
out to see, and have been seeking this city these twenty
years, but find no more of it than I did the first day I
Chr. We have both heard, and believe, that there is
such a place to be found.
Atheist. Had not I, when at home, believed, I had
not come thus far to seek ; but finding none (and yet I
should, had there been such a place to be found, for
I have gone to seek it farther than you), I am going
back again, and will seek to refresh myself with the
things that I then cast away for hopes of that which
I now see is not.
Chr. Then said Christian to Hopeful, his compan-
ion, Is it true which this man hath said ?
Hope. Take heed, he is one of the Flatterers. Re-
member what it cost us once already for our hearkening
to such kind of fellows. What! No Mount Zion ! Did
we not see from the Delectable Mountains the gate of
the city ? Also, are we not now to walk by faith ? Let us
go on, lest the man with the whip overtake us again.
You should have taught me that lesson, which I will
sound you in the ears withal : " Cease, my son, to hear
IIO THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
the instruction that causeth to err from the words of
knowledge." I say, my brother, cease to hear him, and
let us " believe to the saving of the soul."
Chr. My brother, I did not put the question to thee,
for that I doubted of the truth of our belief myself, but
to prove thee, and to fetch from thee a fruit of the hon-
esty of thy heart. As for this man, I know that he is
blinded by the god of this world. Let us both go on ;
knowing that we have belief of the truth ; and " no lie
is of the truth."
Hope. Now do I rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
So they turned away from the man ; and he, laughing
at them, went his way.
I then saw in my dream, that they went on until they
came into a certain country whose air naturally tended
to make one drowsy, if he came a stranger into it.
And here Hopeful began to be very dull and heavy to
sleep ; wherefore he said unto Christian, I do now begin
to grow so drowsy that I can scarcely hold open mine
eyes ; let us lie down here, and take one nap.
Che,. By no means, said the other ; lest, sleeping, we
never awake more.
Hope. Why, my brother, sleep is sweet to the labor-
ing man : we may be refreshed, if we take a nap.
Chr. Do you not remember that one of the shep-
herds bid us beware of the Enchanted Ground ? He
meant by that, that we should beware of sleeping;
"therefore, let us not sleep, as do others; but let us
watch, and be sober."
Hope. I acknowledge myself in a fault ; and had I
been here alone, I had, by sleeping, run the danger of
death. I see it is true that the wise man saith, " Two are
better than one." Hitherto hath thy company been my
mercy ; and thou shalt have a good reward for thy labor.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS m
I saw then, in my dream, that Hopeful looked back,
and saw Ignorance, whom they had left behind, coming
after. Look, said he to Christian, how far yonder
youngster loitereth behind.
Chr. Aye, aye, I see him : he careth not for our
Hope. But I think it would not have hurt him, had
he kept pace with us hitherto.
Chr. That is true ; but I warrant you he thinketh
Hope. That I think he doth ; but, however, let us
tarry for him.
So they did.
Then Christian said to him, Come away, man ; why
do you stay so behind?
Ignor. You go so fast I cannot keep pace with you
Do you go on before ; I must stay awhile behind.
112 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
THE TENTH STAGE
Then Christian addressed himself thus to his fel-
iow : —
Chr. Well, come, my good Hopeful, I perceive that
thou and I must walk by ourselves again.
So I saw in my dream, that they went on apace
before, and Ignorance he came hobbling after. Then
said Christian to his companion, I much pity this poor
man ; it will certainly go ill with him at last.
Hope. Alas ! there are abundance in our town in
his condition, whole families, yea, whole streets, and
that of pilgrims, too ; and if there be so many in our
parts, how many, think you, must there be in the place
where he was born ?
Now I saw in my dream, that by this time the pil-
grims were got over the Enchanted Ground, and enter-
ing into the country of Beulah, whose air was very
sweet and pleasant, the way lying directly through it,
they solaced themselves there for a season. Yea, here
they heard continually the singing of birds, and saw
every day the flowers appear in the earth, and heard
the voice of the turtle in the land. In this country
the sun shineth night and day : wherefore this was
beyond the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and also
out of the reach of Giant Despair ; neither could they
from this place so much as see Doubting Castle. Here
they were within sight of the city they were going to ;
also here met them some of the inhabitants thereof ;
for in this land the shining ones commonly walked,
because it was upon the borders of heaven.
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS u?
Now, as they walked in this land, they had more re-
joicing than in parts more remote from the kingdom to
which they were bound ; and drawing near to the city,
they had yet a more perfect view thereof. It was
builded of pearls and precious stones, also the streets
thereof were paved with gold ; so that, by reason of
the natural glory of the city, and the reflection of the
sunbeams upon it, Christian with desire fell sick.
Hopeful also had a fit or two of the same disease.
Wherefore here they lay by it a while, crying out, be-
cause of their pangs, " If you see my Beloved, tell Him
that I am sick of love."
But being a little strengthened, and better able to
bear their sickness, they walked on their way, and
came yet nearer and nearer, where were orchards, vine-
yards, and gardens, and their gates opened into the
highway. Now, as they came up to these places, be-
hold, the gardener stood in the way ; to whom the pil-
grims said, Whose goodly vineyards and gardens are
these ? He answered, They are the King's, and are
planted here for His own delight, and also for the sol-
ace of pilgrims. So the gardener had them into the
vineyards, and bid them refresh themselves with the
dainties ; he also showed them there the King's walks
and arbors, where He delighted to be. And here they
tarried and slept.
So I saw that, when they awoke, they made them-
selves to go up to the city. But, as I said, the re-
flection of the sun upon the city — for the city was
pure gold — was so extremely glorious, that they could
not as yet with open face behold it, but through an
instrument made for that purpose. So I saw that as
they went on, there met them two men in raiment that
shone like gold, also their faces shone as the light.
ri 4 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
These men asked the pilgrims whence they came ;
and they told them. They also asked them where they
had lodged, what difficulties and dangers, what com-
forts and pleasures, they had met with in the way :
and they told them. Then said the men that met
them, You have but two difficulties more to meet with,
and then you are in the city.
Christian then, and his companion, asked the men
to go along with them ; so they told them that they
would ; but, said they, you must obtain it by your own
faith. So I saw in my dream, that they went on to-
gether till they came in sight of the gate.
Now I further saw, that betwixt them and the gate
was a river ; but there was no bridge to go over, and
the river was very deep. At the sight, therefore, of
this river the pilgrims were much stunned ; but the
men that went with them said, You must go through,
or you cannot come at the gate.
The pilgrims then began to inquire if there was no
other way to the gate. To which they answered, Yes ;
but there hath not any, save two, Enoch and Elijah,
been permitted to tread that path since the foundation
of the world, nor shall until the last trumpet shall
sound. The pilgrims then, especially Christian, began
to despond in their mind, and looked this way and that,
but no way could be found by them by which they
might escape the river. Then they asked the men if
the waters were all of a depth. They said, No ; yet
they could not help them in that case ; for, said they,
you shall find it deeper or shallower as you believe in
the King of the place.
Then they made themselves ready to enter the water,
and entering, Christian began to sink, and crying out
to his good friend Hopeful, he said, " I sink in deep
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS u^
waters ; the billows go over my head ; all His waves
go over me."
Then said the other, Be of good cheer, my brother.
I feel the bottom, and it is good. Then said Christian,
Ah, my friend, the sorrows of death have compassed
me about, I shall not see the land that flows with milk
and honey. And with that a great darkness and horror
fell upon Christian, so that he could not see before him.
Also here he in a great measure lost his senses, so that
he could neither remember nor orderly talk of any of
those sweet refreshments that he had met with in the
way of his pilgrimage. But all the words that he spoke
still tended to discover that he had horror of mind, and
heart-fears that he should die in that river, and never
obtain entrance in at the gate. Here also, as they that
stood by perceived, he was much in the troublesome
thoughts of the sins that he had committed, both since
and before he began to be a pilgrim. It was also ob-
served that he was troubled with apparitions or hob-
goblins and evil spirits ; for ever and anon he would
intimate so much by words.
Hopeful, therefore, here had much ado to keep his
brother's head above water; yea, sometimes he would
be quite gone down, and then, ere a while, he would
rise up again half dead. Hopeful did also endeavor to
comfort him, saying, Brother, I see the gate, and men
standing by to receive us. But Christian would answer,
It is you, it is you they wait for ; for you have been
hopeful ever since I knew you. And so have you, said
he to Christian. Ah, brother (said he), surely if I was
right He would now arise to help me ; but for my sins
He hath brought me into the snare, and hath left me.
Then said Hopeful, My brother, you have quite forgot
the text, where it is said of the wicked, " There are no
Il6 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
bands in their death, but their strength is firm ; they
are not troubled as other men, neither are they plagued
like other men." These troubles and distresses that you
go through in these waters, are no sign that God hath
forsaken you ; but are sent to try you, whether you will
call to mind that which heretofore you have received of
His goodness, and live upon Him in your distresses.
Then I saw in my dream, that Christian was in a deep
thought a while. To whom also Hopeful added these
words, Be of good cheer, Jesus Christ maketh thee
whole. And with that Christian broke out with a loud
voice, Oh, I see Him again, and He tells me, " When
thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee ;
and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee."
Then they both took courage, and the enemy was after
that as still as a stone, until they were gone over.
Christian, therefore, presently found ground to stand
upon, and so it followed that the rest of the river was
but shallow. Thus they got over.
Now, upon the bank of the river, on the other side,
they saw the two shining men again, who there waited
for them. Wherefore, being come out of the river,
they saluted them, saying, We are ministering spirits,
sent forth to minister to those that shall be the heirs of
salvation. Thus they went along towards the gate.
Now you must note, that the city stood upon a
mighty hill, but the pilgrims went up that hill with
ease, because they had these two men to lead them up
by the arms : they had likewise left their mortal gar-
ments behind them in the river ; for though they went
in with them, they came out without them. They
therefore went up here with much agility and speed,
though the foundation upon which the cit\ was framed
was higher than the clouds ; they therefore went up
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
through the region of the air, sweetly talking as they went,
being comforted because they had safely got over the
river, and had such glorious companions to attend the in.
The talk that they had with the shining ones was
about the glory of the place ; who told them that the
beauty and glory of it was inexpressible. There, said
they, is " Mount Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the in-
numerable company of angels, and the spirits of just
men made perfect." You are going now, said they, to
the paradise of God, wherein you shall see the tree of
life, and eat of the never-fading fruits thereof : and '
when you come there you shall have white robes given
you, and your walk and talk shall be every day with
the King, even all the days of eternity.
Now, while they were thus drawing towards the gate,
behold, a company of the heavenly host came out to
meet them ; to whom it was said by the other two shin-
ing ones, These are the men that have loved our Lord
when they were in the world, and that have left all for
His holy name ; and He hath sent us to fetch them, and
we have brought them thus far on their desired jour-
ney, that they may go in and look their Redeemer in
the face with joy. Then the heavenly host gave a
great shout, saying, " Blessed are they that are called
to the marriage-supper of the Lamb." There came out
also at this time to meet them several of the King's
trumpeters clothed in white and shining raiment, who,
with melodious noises and loud, made even the heavens
to echo with their sound. These trumpeters saluted
Christian and his fellow with ten thousand welcomes
from the Celestial City ; and this they did with shouts
ing and sound of trumpet.
This done, they compassed them round on every side ;
some went before, some behind, and some on the right
n8 THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS
hand, and some on the left (as it were to guard them
through the upper regions), continually sounding as
they went, with melodious noise, in notes on high ; so
that the very sight was to them that could behold it as
if heaven itself was come down to meet them. Thus,
therefore, they walked on together ; and, as the}^
walked, these trumpeters, even with joyful sound,
would, by mixing their music with looks and gestures,
still signify to Christian and his brother how welcome
they were to their company, and with what gladness
thev came to meet them. And now were these two
men, as it were, in heaven, before they came to it,
being carried away with the sight of angels, and with
hearing of their melodious notes. Here also they had
the city itself in view ; and they thought they heard all
the bells therein to ring, to welcome them thereto.
But, above all, the warm and joyful thoughts that they
had about their own dwelling there with such company,
and that for ever and ever ; oh, by what tongue or pen
can their glorious joy be expressed ! Thus they came
up to the gate.
Now when they were come up to the gate, there was
written over it, in letters of gold,
"BLESSED ARE THEY THAT DO HIS COMMANDMENTS,
THAT THEY MAY HAVE RIGHT TO THE TREE OF
LIFE, AND MAY ENTER IN THROUGH THE GATES
INTO THE CITY."
Then I saw in my dream, that the shining men bid
them call at the gate ; the which when they did, some
from above looked over the gate ; namely, Enoch, Moses,
and Elijah, and others, to whom it Avas said, These pil-
grims are come from the City of Destruction, for the
love that they bear to the King of this place : and then
THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS no
the pilgrims gave in unto them each man his certificate,
. which they had received in the beginning. Those,
therefore, were carried in unto the King, who, when He
had read them, said, Where are the men ? To whom
it was answered, They are standing without the gate.
The King then commanded to open the gate, " That
the righteous nation (said He) that keepeth the truth
may enter in."
Now I saw in my dream, that these two men went
in at the gate ; and lo, as they entered, they were
transfigured ; and they had raiment put on that shone
like gold. There were also some that met them with
harps and crowns, and gave them to them ; the harps to
praise withal, and the crowns in token of honor. Then
I heard in my dream, that all the bells in the city rang
again for joy, and that it was said unto them,
"ENTER YE INTO THE JOY OF YOUR LORD."
I also heard the men themselves sing with a loud voice,
" BLESSING, AND HONOR, AND GLORY, AND POWER, BE
UNTO HIM THAT SITTETH UPON THE THRONE, AND
UNTO THE LAMB FOR EVER AND EVER."
Now, just as the gates were opened to let in the men,
I looked in after them, and behold, the city shone like the
sun ; the streets also were paved with gold : and in them
walked many men, with crowns on their heads, palms in
their hands, and golden harps, to sing praises withal.
There were also of them that had wings, and they
answered one another without intermission, saying,
Holy, holy, holy is the Lord. And after that they shut
up the gates ; which, when I had seen, I wished myself
H 70 86 i
* A^ ^
o . * * A, ^ ' " M
<^ v o « o ^ i Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process.
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide
Treatment Date: Feb. 2009
; PreservationTechnologies \4
r^". ' A W0RL0 LEADER IN COLLECTIONS PRESERVATION
O ♦o^o' .0 "^ *" » , t ♦ 111 Thomson Park Drive
, "*>v rtV « .o ***^ .^ Cranberry Township, PA 16066
s * & -A JlV •!, °*. ^ V (724)779-2111 i
". ^. J& • 4 A^^/U # o ^. .^
r oV T
<j> - S • • , Vs <V
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
014 158 704 3 #